United States Reference Works

Abel, Richard, ed. Encyclopedia of Early Cinema. Abingdon: Routledge, 2005.

Acker, Ally. Reel Women: Pioneers of the Cinema, 1896 to the Present. New York: Continuum, 1991.

The American Film Institute Catalog of Motion Pictures Produced in the United States: Film Beginnings, 18931910—A Work in Progress. Metuchen: Scarecrow, 1995.

Bowser, Eileen. Biograph Bulletins, 1908–1912. New York: Octagon Books, 1973.

Bowser, Eileen, and John Kuiper, eds. A Handbook for Film Archives: Based on the Experiences of Members of the International Federation of Film Archives. Brussels: Fédération Internationale des Archives du Film, 1980.

———, eds. A Handbook for Film Archives. New York: Garland, 1991.

Braff, Richard E. The Braff Silent Short Film Working Papers: Over 25,000 Films, 19031929, Alphabetized and Indexed. Jefferson: McFarland, 2002.

Bushnell, Brooks. Directors and Their Films: A Comprehensive Reference, 18951990. Jefferson: McFarland, 1993.

Catalog of Copyright Entries, Motion Pictures 1912–1939. Washington DC: Library of Congress, Copyright Office, 1951.

Catalog of Copyright Entries, Fourth Series. Part 4, Motion Pictures & Filmstrips. Washington DC: Copyright Office, Library of Congress, 1979.

Center for Motion Picture Study, Margaret Herrick Library, and Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Motion Picture Scripts: A Union List. Beverly Hills: Margaret Herrick Library and Academy Foundation, Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, 2000.

Clark, Randall, ed. American Screenwriters: Second Series. Detroit: Gale, 1986.

Cook, Samantha. International Directory of Films and Filmmakers. 2nd ed. Detroit: St. James, 1993.

D’Agostino, Annette M., ed. Filmmakers in the Moving Picture World: An Index of Articles, 19071927. Jefferson: McFarland, 1997.

Dagrada, Elena. Bibliographie internationale du cinéma des premiers temps/International Bibliography on Early Cinema, 2nd ed. Madison: Domitor, 1995.

D’Arc, James V., ed. The Register of the Cecil B. DeMille Archives. Provo: BYU, Harold B. Lee Library, 1991.

Doyle, Billy H., and Anthony Slide. The Ultimate Directory of Film Technicians: A Necrology of Dates and Places of Births and Deaths of More Than 9,000 Producers, Screenwriters, Composers, Cinematographers, Art Directors, Costume Designers, Choreographers, Executives, and Publicists. Lanham: Scarecrow, 1999.

———. The Ultimate Directory of the Silent Screen Performers: A Necrology of Births and Deaths and Essays on 50 Lost Players. Metuchen: Scarecrow, 1995.

Drachman, Virginia G. Enterprising Women: 250 Years of American Business. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 2002.

Edmonds, I. G. Big U: Universal in the Silent Days. South Brunswick: A.S. Barnes, 1977.

Foster, Gwendolyn Audrey. Women Film Directors: An International Bio-Critical Dictionary. Westport: Greenwood, 1995.

Francke, Lizzie. Script Girls: Women Screenwriters in Hollywood. London: British Film Institute, 1994.

Hanson, Patricia King, ed. The American Film Institute Catalog of Motion Pictures Produced in the United States: Feature Films, 1911-1920. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.

Hayne, Donald, ed. The Autobiography of Cecil B. DeMille. 1959. New York: Garland, 1985.

Haberski, Raymond. It’s Only a Movie!: Films and Critics in American Culture. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2001. (Iris Barry) 

Heck-Rabi, Louise. Women Filmmakers: A Critical Reception. Metuchen: Scarecrow, 1984.

Herbert, Stephen. A History of Early Film. London: Routledge, 2000.

Herbert, Stephen, and Luke McKernan, eds. Who’s Who of Victorian Cinema: A Worldwide Survey. Centenary of Cinema Series. London: British Film Institute, 1996.

Higgins, Steven. Still Moving: The Film and Media Collections of the Museum of Modern Art. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2006.

Katz, Ephraim, Fred Klein, and Ronald Dean Nolen. The Film Encyclopedia. 4th ed. New York: Harper, 2001.

Kemp R. Niver and Bebe Bergsten. Early Motion Pictures: The Paper Print Collection in the Library of Congress. Washington DC: Motion Picture, Broadcasting, and Recorded Sound Division, Library of Congress, 1985.

Kowalski, Rosemary Ann Ribich. Women and Film: A Bibliography. Metuchen: Scarecrow, 1976.

Kuhn, Annette, and Susannah Radstone, eds. The Women’s Companion to International Film. Berkeley: U of California P, 1994.

———. Women in Film: An International Guide. New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1990.

Lauritzen, Einar, and Gunnar Lundquist. American Film-Index 1908-1915: Motion Pictures, July 1908December 1915. Stockholm: Film-Index, 1976.

———. American Film-Index 1916–1920: Motion Pictures, January 1916–December 1920. Stockholm, Sweden: Film-Index, 1984.

Levy, David. “Re-Constituted Newsreels, Re-Enactments and the American Narrative Film.” Cinema 19001906: An Analytical Study by the National Film Archive (London) and the International Federation of Film Archives. Ed. Roger Holman and André Gaudreault. Brussels: FIAF, 1982. 243-60.

Leyda, Jay, and Musser, Charles. Before Hollywood: Turn-of-the-Century Film from American Archives. New York: American Federation of Arts, 1986.

Liebman, Roy. Silent Film Performers: An Annotated Bibliography of Published, Unpublished, and Archival Sources for Over 350 Actors and Actresses. Jefferson: McFarland, 1996.

Lowe, Denise. An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Women in Early American Films18951930. New York: Haworth, 2005.

Lowrey, Carolyn. The First One Hundred Men and Women of the Screen. New York: Moffat, 1920.

Melville, Annette, and Scott Simmon. Redefining Film Preservation: A National Plan: Recommendations of the Librarian of Congress in Consultation with the National Film Preservation Board. Washington DC: National Film Preservation Board of the Library of Congress, 1994.

Motion Picture News Booking Guide. New York: Motion Picture News, 1913-1930.

Munden, Kenneth W. The American Film Institute Catalog of Motion Pictures Produced in the United States: Feature Films, 1921–1930. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

Musser, Charles. Edison Motion Pictures, 18901900: An Annotated Filmography. Gemona: Giornate del cinema muto; Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1997.

Niver, Kemp R., and Bebe Bergsten. Biograph Bulletins, 1896–1908. Los Angeles: Locare, 1971.

Prichard, Susan Perez. Film Costume: An Annotated Bibliography. Metuchen: Scarecrow, 1981.

Quart, Barbara Koenig. Women Directors: The Emergence of a New Cinema. New York: Praeger, 1988.

Shales, Tom, and Kevin Brownlow. The American Film Heritage: Impressions from the American Film Institute Archives. Washington DC: Acropolis, 1972.

Sicherman, Barbara, and Carol Hurd Green. Notable American Women: The Modern Period: A Biographical Dictionary. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University, 1980.

Slide, Anthony. The American Film Industry: A Historical Dictionary. 1986. New York: Limelight, 1990.

———. Aspects of American Film History Prior to 1920. Metuchen: Scarecrow Press, 1978.

———. The New Historical Dictionary of the American Film Industry. Lanham: Scarecrow, 1998.

———. Silent Players: A Biographical and Autobiographical Study of 100 Silent Film Actors and Actresses. Lexington: UP of Kentucky, 2002.

Spehr, Paul C., ed. American Film Personnel and Company Credits1908–1920: Filmographies Reordered by Authoritative Organizational and Personal Names from Lauritzen and Lundquist’s American Film-Index. Jefferson: McFarland, 1996.

Unterburger, Amy L., ed. The St. James Women Filmmakers Encyclopedia: Women on the Other Side of the Camera. Detroit: Visible Ink, 1999.

Vazzana, Eugene Michael. Silent Film Necrology: Births and Deaths of Over 9000 Performers, Directors, Producers, and Other Filmmakers of the Silent Era, Through 1993. NC: McFarland & Co. Inc., 1995.

Walls, Howard Lamar. Motion PicturesCatalog of Copyright Entries. Washington D.C.: Copyright Office, Library of Congress, 1939.

——–. Motion Pictures, 18941912, Identified from the Records of the United States Copyright Office. Washington DC: Copyright Office, Library of Congress, 1953.


“D. W. Griffith Papers, 18971948.” Frederick: University Publications of America, 1982.

Gomery, Douglas, ed. The Will Hays Papers. Frederick: University Publications of America, 1988.

Katz, Esther,  Peter C. Engelman, Cathy Moran Hajo, and Anke Voss Hubbard, eds. The Margaret Sanger Papers Microfilm Edition: Smith College Collections. Bethesda: University Publications of America, 1996.

Martin, Ann, Virginia M. Clark, and Maria Schlesinger. What Women Wrote: Scenarios, 1912–1929. Frederick: University Publications of America, 1987.

Musser, Charles, et. al. Motion Picture Catalogs by American Producers and Distributors, 1894–1908: A Microfilm Edition. Frederick: University Publications of America, 1984.