Allen, Derek. Works Progress Administration Recorder. Federal Writers Project, 1936. UOL-WHC.

“Among the Movies.” Chicago Defender (20 November 1915): 5.

Bowser, Pearl, Jane Gaines, and Charles Musser, eds. Oscar Micheaux and His Circle: African-American Filmmaking and Race Cinema of the Silent Era. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001.

Brooks-Bertram, Peggy Ann. “Drusilla Dunjee Houston: Uncrowned Queen in the African American Literary Tradition.” Unpublished PhD. Dissertation. State University of New York at Buffalo, 2002.

Brooks-Bertram, Peggy and Barbara A. Seals Nevergold, eds. Uncrowned Queens: African American Women Community Builders of Oklahoma, 1907–2007. Master Plan Project, Oklahoma Centennial, vol. 4. Tulsa: Uncrowned Queens Publishing, 2007.

Carson, Warren J. “Hurston as Dramatist: The Florida Connection.” Zora in Florida. Eds. Steve Glassman and Kathryn Lee Seidel. Orlando: Board of Regents of the State of Florida, 1991.

The Chicago Defender (24 March 1923): 6.

Dixon, Aimee. “The Historiography of Early African-American Women in Film.” M.A. Thesis. Columbia University, 2010.

Duberman, Martin. Paul Robeson. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1988.

Dunjee, Roscoe. “Men and Women Who Make the Black Dispatch.” Oklahoma Black Dispatch (2 Jan. 1920): n.p.

Fleener-Marzec, Nickieann. D.W. Griffith’s The Birth of a Nation: Controversy, Suppression, and the First Amendment as it Applies to Filmic Expression, 1915-1973. New York: Arno Press, 1980.

Gibson, Gloria J. “Cinematic Foremothers: Zora Neale Hurston and Eloyce King Patrick Gist.” Oscar Micheaux and His Circle: African-American Filmmaking and Race Cinema of the Silent Era. Eds. Pearl Bowser, Jane Gaines, and Charles Musser. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001. 195-209.

Gillespie, Michele K. and Randal L. Hall, eds. Thomas Dixon Jr. and the Birth of Modern America. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2006.

Green, J. Ronald. With a Crooked Stick: The Films of Oscar Micheaux. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004.

Houston, Drusilla Dunjee. “Building the Home, The Companions of Our Children.” Oklahoma Black Dispatch (15 June 1922): n.p.

——. “The Days on Reconstruction,” Oklahoma Black Dispatch (29 October 1938): n.p.

——. “Spirit of the Old South: The Maddened Mob.” Unpublished screenplay (1909–1933).

——.Wonderful Ethiopians of the Ancient Cushite Empires, Book I. Oklahoma City, OK:  Universal Publishing Company, 1926.

——. Wonderful Ethiopians of the Ancient Cushite EmpiresOrigin of Civilization from the Cushites, Book II:  Buffalo: Peggy Bertram Publishing, 2007.

Hurston, Zora Neale. “Fannie Hurst, by her ex-amanuensis.” Saturday Review of Literature 16 (9 October 1937): 15–16.

Lant, Antonia, ed. Red Velvet Seat: Women’s Writing on the First Fifty Years of Cinema. New York: Verso, 2006.

Love, Theresa R. “Zora Neale Hurston’s America.” Zora Neale Hurston. Harold Bloom, ed. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1986. 47-61.

McGilligan, Patrick. Oscar Micheaux: The Great and Only: The Life of America’s First Black Filmmaker. New York: Harper Collins, 2007.

“Motion Picture News.” Chicago Defender (24 March 1923): 6.

Musser, Charles. “Troubled Relations: Paul Robeson, Eugene O’Neill, and Oscar Micheaux.” Paul Robeson: Artist and Citizen. Ed. Jeffrey C. Stewart. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1998. 81–103.

Micheaux, Alice. Letter to Ethel Micheaux. 7 Jan. 1948. Richard Grupenhoff Collection.

Norfolk Journal and Guide (5 May 1923): 1.

“Our Growth and Importance in the Amusement World.” The Competitor 3. 4 (June 1921): 38.

Robeson, Eslanda. Diary (20–29 March 1930). YU-B.

——. Paul Robeson, Negro. New York: Harper and Bros., 1930.

Robeson, Marilyn. “Eslanda Cardozo Goode Robeson.” Footsteps. Cobblestone Publishing. 01 Nov. 2003.

Sampson, Henry T. Blacks in Black and WhiteA Source Book on Black Films. Metuchen: Scarecrow Press, 1995.

Sexton, Jamie. “Borderline (1930).” BFI: Screenonline, 2003-2008

Silverstein, Louis. “Louis Silverstein’s H. D. Chronology, Part Four (1929–April 1, 1946).” Ed. H. Hernandez. 2006.

Stewart, Jeffrey C., ed. Paul Robeson: Artist and Citizen. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1998.

Welbon, Yvonne. “Sisters in Cinema: Case Studies of Three First-Time Achievements Made by African American Women Feature Film Directors in the 1990s.” PhD. Diss. Northwestern University, 2001.

Williams, Maria P. My Work and Public Sentiment. Kansas City: Burton Publishing, 1916.

Oscar Micheaux Homepage:

Zora Neale Hurston website:

Archival Paper  Collections: 

Black Film Center Archives, Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, Indiana. IU-BFCA.

Paul Robeson Papers, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, YU-B.

Richard Grupenhoff Private Collection.