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——-. The Red Rooster Scare: Making Cinema American, 1900–1910. Berkeley: U of California P, 1999.

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——. California; An Intimate History. New York and London: Harper & Brothers, 1914.

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——. [as Mary Marvin Breckinridge Patterson]. My American Century. Marpat Foundation, 2006.

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“Bright Girls Aren’t Hiding Their Lights Under Bushels.” Los Angeles Times (2 Jan. 1927): C33 (Dorothy Yost, Frances Marion, Dorothy Farnum, Lenore Coffee, Bess Meredyth, June Mathis, Bradley King, Eve Unsell, Jeanie Macpherson, Winifred Dunn, Hope Loring, Lois Weber, Marion Fairfax)

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——. Hollywood: The Pioneers. New York: Knopf, 1979.

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——. “Obituary: Jan (Trimble) Zilliacus.” The Independent – London (1 June 1999): n.p. (Jane Murfin)

——. The Parade’s Gone By. New York: Knopf, 1968.

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——. Life to Those Shadows. Trans. Ben Brewster. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.

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——. “New Film Histories and the Politics of Location.” Screen vol. 33, no. 4 (Winter 1992): 413-426.

——Women’s Cinema: The Contested Screen. London: Wallflower, 2002.

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——. “Styles Are Dictated in Hollywood and Paris Designers Follow Them.” Motion Picture 29 (March 1925): 28-29; 110-111; 116-117. (Clare West)

“Calls Miss Vidor Perfect.” Los Angeles Times (2 May 1926): C19. (Dorothy Farnum)

Campos, A. “‘Alma Mexicana’: Una admirable película.” El Nacional (22 Aug. 1932) n.p. (Juliet Barrett Rublee)

“Caption: Phillips Smalley and His Talented Wife Whose Directorial Fame Has Eclipsed His.” Photoplay (1917). (Lois Weber)

Carbine, Mary. “‘The Finest Outside the Loop’: Motion Picture Exhibition in Chicago’s Black Metropolis, 1905-1928.” In Silent Film. Ed. Richard Abel. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1996. 234-62.

Card, James. “The Films of Mary Pickford.” Image: The Journal of the George Eastman House vol.8, no. 4 (Dec. 1959): 172-191

——. Seductive Cinema: The Art of Silent Film. New York: Knopf, 1994.

Carr, Catherine. The Art of Photoplay Writing. New York: Hannis Jordan, 1914.

Carson, Diane, Linda Dittmar, and Janice R. Welsch, eds. Multiple Voices in Feminist Film Criticism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994.

Carter, Aline. “The Muse of the Reel.” Motion Picture Magazine (March 1921): 62-63, 105. (Lois Weber)

Carey, Gary. “Written on the Screen: Anita Loos.” Film Comment vol. 6, no. 4 (Winter 1970-71): 51.

“The Case of Becky.” Rev. Moving Picture World (25 Sept. 1915): 2198. (Margaret Turnbull)

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Certeau, Michel de. The Writing of History. New York: Columbia University Press, 1988.

“Chance Came When She Lost Her Voice.” Los Angeles Times (13 July 1924): B26. (Dot Farley)

Chance, Jean C. “Adela Rogers St. Johns.” Dictionary of Literary Biography: American Newspaper Journalists, 1926-1950. Vol. 29. Detroit: Gale, 1984. 310-12.

Chaplin, Charles. My Autobiography. London: Penguin, 2003.

Cheathem, Maude. “The Waking Beauty.” Motion Picture Classic (July 1921): 32-33, 74. (Alice Terry)

Cherchi-Usai, Paolo. “The Philosophy of Film History.” Film History vol. 6, no. 1 (1994): 3-5.

Chic, Mle. “The Dual Personality of Cleo Madison.” Motion Picture Weekly (1 July 1916): 24.

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——. Hollywood Director: The Career of Mitchell Leisen. Los Angeles: Photoventures Press, 1995.

“The City of Tears.” Moving Picture World (13 July 1918): 246. (Elsie Jane Wilson)

“Claire Wille Joins World Art Department.” Moving Picture World (15 June 1918): 1574.

“Clara Kimball Young, Artist.” Moving Picture World (3 Oct. 1914): 41.

“Clara Kimball Young Moves from Sunset to Brunton.” Moving Picture World (8 Feb. 1919): 798.

“Clara Kimball Young Relates Her Plans and Wishes All a Very Merry Christmas.” Moving Picture World (1 Jan. 1921): 45.

“Clara Kimball Young Sues Selznick.” Moving Picture World (9 June 1917): 1580.

Clark, Danae. Negotiating Hollywood: The Cultural Politics of Actors’ Labor. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1995.

Clark, Sue Ainslie and Edith Wyatt. Making Both Ends Meet; The Income and Outlay of New York Working Girls. New York: Macmillan Co., 1911.

Clarke, Charles Galloway, and Anthony Slide. Highlights and Shadows: The Memoirs of a Hollywood Cameraman. Filmmaker Series 21. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1989.

Clarke, Edith. “Designing Clothes for the Movie Folk.” In Opportunities in the Motion Picture Industry: And How to Qualify for Positions in its Many Branches. Los Angeles: Photoplay Research Society, 1922. 79-82; Rpt. New York: Arno Press, 1970. 

“Cleo Madison Has Narrow Escape.” Moving Picture World (8 Aug. 1914): 846.

“Cleo Madison, Who Is Now Directing her Own Photoplays.” Moving Picture Weekly (25 Sept. 1915): 18.

“Cleo Madison Supports Mother and Invalid Sister.” Universal Weekly (19 Sept. 1914): 9.

“Clever Grace Cunard.” Photoplay (Apr. 1914): 33.

“Close-Ups.” Photoplay (Dec. 1916): 63-64. (Pearl White, Mary Pickford, Clara Kimball Young)

“Closeups–What Amateurs Are Doing.” Movie Makers (April 1932): 179. (Marvin Breckinridge)

Coffee, Lenore. Storyline: Reflections of a Hollywood Screenwriter. London: Casell, 1973.

“Coffey [sic] writes Story.” Moving Picture World (1 Jan. 1927): 30.

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“Columbia Signs Olga Printzlau.” Moving Picture World (30 July 1927): 334.

Colton, Helen. “Meet the Gals Who Write ‘Em, Not Ride ‘Em.” New York Times (31 Oct. 1948): X5. (Adele Buffington)

Condon, Denis. Early Irish Cinema 1895-1921. Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 2008. (Gene Gauntier)

Condon, Mabel. “The City Universal.” New York Dramatic Mirror (5 Aug. 1916): 26-28, 32-36, 44. (Ruth Ann Baldwin, Eugenie Magnus Ingleton, Francelia Billington, Ruth Stonehouse, Cleo Madison, Lule Warrenton, Bess Meredyth)

Colton, Helen. “Hot Chocolate and Reminiscences at Nine in the Morning.” Photoplay (Jan. 1915): 69. (Gene Gauntier)

——.  “The Lasky Studio.” New York Dramatic Mirror (28 Oct. 1916): 34-36, 38, 42-43.

——. “Meet the Gals Who Write ‘Em, Not Ride ‘Em.” New York Times (31 Oct. 1948): X5. (Adele S. Buffington)

——. “The Real Perils of Pauline.” Photoplay (Oct. 1914): 59-64.

——.. “Sans Grease Paint and Wig.” Motography (22 Aug. 1914): 279-280. (Pearl White)

——.. “Yorke-Metro Studios: Hollywood’s Home of Artistic Picture Production.” New York Dramatic Mirror (2 Dec. 1916): 34, 40.

“Confessions of a Scenario Editor.” Photoplay (Aug. 1914): 164-168.

“A Conscientious Modiste.” Picture Play (Oct. 1924): 48. (Sophie Wachner)

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——. “From Vitagraph Girl to British Star: Florence Turner As Transnational Celebrity.” Unpublished paper delivered at Women and the Silent Screen Conference, Guadalajara, Mexico, 2006.

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——.“Studio History Revisited: The Case of the Universal Women.” Quarterly Review of Film and Video vol. 25, no. 1 (2008): 16-36.

——. “Tackling Universal Women as a Research Problem: What Historiographic Sources Do and Don’t Tell Us about “Gender” in the Silent Motion Picture Studio.” Framework vol. 51, no. 2 (Fall 2010): 334-342.

——. Universal Women: A Case of Institutional Change. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2010.

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——.  Selling Manuscripts in the Photoplay Market. Los Angeles: Palmer Photoplay Corporation, 1920.

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Cotter, Carl. F. “The Forty Hacks of the Fan Mags.” The Coast (Feb. 1939): 18-21.

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“Cousin Kate.” Rev. Exhibitor’s Trade Review (2 Apr. 1921): n.p. (Mrs. Sidney Drew)

Cowan, Sada. “What ‘Pull’ You Need To Get Into the Movies.” New York Amsterdam News (24 Aug. 1932): 8.

Crafton, Donald. “Audienceship in Early Cinema.” Iris 11 (1990): 1-12.

——. The Talkies: American Cinema’s Transition to Sound, 1926–1931. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1999.

“Crandall Held for Attack on Dancer; Magistrate Doubles Bail when Counsel for Accused attempts to Get a Reduction.” New York Times (21 July 1914): 5. (Hope Loring)

“The Cricket.” Rev. The Moving Picture World (24 Nov. 1917): 29. (Elsie Jane Wilson, Norma Talmadge)

Crowther, Bosley. Hollywood Rajah: The Life and Times of Louis B. Mayer. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1960.

Cullen, Frank, Florence Hackman, and Donald McNeilly. Vaudeville Old and New: An Encyclopedia of Variety Performers in America, Volume 1. New York: Routledge, 2007. (Annette Kellerman)

Cunard, Grace. “Crowded out of Stardom.” New Movie Magazine (Feb. 1932): 38-39, 117.

——. [written under the pseudonym “The Master Pen”]. “Lucille Love, The Girl of Mystery.” Universal Weekly vol. 4, no. 15 (Apr. 1914): 4-5, 16.

“The Current Problem and Opportunity of the Moving Picture Show.” Motion Picture News (11 January 1913): 20. Rpt. in Eileen Bowser (1990): 123. (Josephine Clement)

Czerny, Bethany. “Fade In: Rediscovering Katherine Hilliker Through Choices in Historical and Digital Research New Resources.” Unpublished paper, Women and the Silent Screen Conference, June 2010.

Dahlquist, Marina ed. Exporting Perilous Pauline: Pearl White and the Serial Film Craze. Urbana, Chicago and Springfield: University of Illinois Press, 2013.

——.“Introduction: Why Pearl? Exporting Pauline: Pearl White and the Serial Film Craze. Bloomington: University of Illinois Press, 2013. 1-24. 

Dall’Asta, Monica. “On Frieda Klug, Pearl White, and Other Travelling Women Film Pioneers.” Framework vol. 51, no. 2 (Fall 2010): 310-323.

Dalle Vacche, Angela. “Alain Cavalier’s Therese: Still Life and the Close-up as Feminine Space.” Cinema and Painting: How Art Is Used in Film. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1996. 3-25.

Darnell, Jean. “A Day Spent with Helen Gardner.” Photoplay (Jan. 1914): 72-73.

“The Daughter of the Confederacy.” Rev. Motion Picture World vol. 15, no. 4 (1 March 1913): 892, 1029 (Gene Gauntier)

Davidson, Cathy N. “Preface: No More Separate Spheres.” American Literature vol. 70, no. 3 (1998): 443-463.

Davis, Alta M. “Great Field for Women: Lady Manager of Theater Writes to Balboa Company.” New York Dramatic Mirror (10 Feb. 1917): 24.

Davis, Henry R., Jr. “Clara Kimball Young.” Films in Review XII (Aug.-Sept. 1961): 419-425.

Day, Dorothy. “Ouida Bergère Wants to be Barriesque.” Morning Telegraph (13 July 1924): 2.

Decherney, Peter. Hollywood and the Culture Elite. New York: Columbia University Press, 2005.

DeCordova, Richard. Picture Personalities: The Emergence of the Star System in America. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1990. Rpt. in 2001.

Delvigne, Doris. “Mind the Little Things.” Motion Picture Magazine (July 1920): 73. (Jeanie Macpherson)

De Mille, Agnes. Dance to the Piper. 1952. Rpt. New York: De Capo Press, 1980.

——. Portrait Gallery. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1990.

DeMille, Beatrice. “The De Mille Family in Motion Pictures.” New York Dramatic Mirror (4 Aug. 1917): 4.

DeMille, Cecil B. The Autobiography of Cecil B. DeMille. 1959. Ed. Donald Hayne. New York: Garland, 1985.

de Mille, Richard. My Secret Mother: Lorna Moon. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1998.

deMille, William C. Hollywood Saga. New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., 1939.

Denison, Arthur. “A Dream in Realization.” Moving Picture World (21 July 1917): 417-418. Rpt. in Hollywood Directors, 1914-1940. Ed. Richard Koszarski. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1976. 50-53. (Lois Weber)

——. “Lois Weber Talks of Film Future.” New York Dramatic Mirror (23 June 1917): 30.

Dennison, Mabel Rhea. “Actresses in Moving Picture Work.” Nickelodeon (Jan. 1909): 19-20.

Denny, Margaret. “How Fay Tincher Regards Her Profession.” Motion Picture Magazine (Aug. 1916): 77-80.

Denton, Frances. “Kathlyn’s Memory Box.” Photoplay (Nov. 1917): 76-78. (Kathlyn Williams)

——. “Lights! Camera! Quiet!” Photoplay 13. 3 (Feb. 1918): 48-50. (Ida May Park, Elsie Jane Wilson)

——. “Real Folks from the Scenario of the Original Story by Kate Corbaley.” Photoplay (Apr. 1918): 83-86.

Dickson, Antonia. Edison’s Invention of the Kineto-Phonograph. 1894. Rpt. Los Angeles: Pueblo Press, 1939.

——, and W.K.L. Dickson. History of the Kinetograph, Kinetoscope, & Kinetophonograph. 1895. Rpt. Salem, N.H.: Ayer, 1984.

“The Difficulties of a Pioneer Film Company.” New York Age (9 Aug. 1917): 6.

“The Directing Microbe.” Moving Picture Stories (13 Apr. 1917): 28. (Ruth Stonehouse)

Divorce from New Angle: Mary Murillo Seeks in New Story to Approach Problem in Novel Way.” Motion Picture News (28 Aug. 1920): 1700.

Dix, Beulah Marie. “An Essential of Writing.” In The Truth About the Movies by the Stars.  Ed. Laurence A. Hughes. Hollywood: Hollywood Publishers, 1924. 397.

Dixon, A.J. “The Only Camera Woman.” Picture-Play Magazine (1 Jan. 1916): 59-65. (Grace Davison)

Dixon, Bryony. “Women’s Film History Project: Issues of Transnationalism.” Framework vol. 51, no. 2 (Fall 2010): 304-309.

“Domination Bad for Actor, Says Film Director.” Los Angeles Times (2 Nov. 1924): C25. (Dorothy Farnum).

“Dorothy Davenport.” Moving Picture Stories (3 Jan. 1913): 31.

“Dorothy Yost Wins Laurels in Teens.” Los Angeles Times (11 Sept. 1927): 28.

“Dot Farley to Direct.”  Moving Picture World (3 Sept. 1921): 50.

“Drama and Music.”  The Boston Globe (19 March 1901): 8.

“The Dream Lady.” Rev. The Moving Picture World (8 Aug. 1918): 880. (Elsie Jane Wilson)

Dressler, Marie. The Life Story of an Ugly Duckling; An Autobiographical Fragment in Seven Parts. New York: McBride, 1924.

——. My Own Story/As Told to Mildred Harrington. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1934.

Drew, Sidney. “Comedy Picture Production.” Moving Picture World (21 July 1917): 412-413.

Drinkwater, John. The Life and Adventures of Carl Laemmle. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1931.

Druesne, Maeve. “Nazimova: Her Silent Films.” Part I. Films in Review 36 (June-July 1985): 322-330.

——. “Nazimova: Her Silent Films.” Part II. Films in Review 36 (August-September 1985): 407.

Duey, Helen. “The Movement for Better Films.” Woman’s Home Companion (March 1915): 64.

Duff Gordon, Lucy [“Lucile”]. Discretions and Indiscretions. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Co, 1932.

——. “The Last Word in Fashions.” Harper’s Bazaar (Dec. 1914): 34.

Dunn, Reina Wiles. “Off-stage Heroines of the Movies.” Independent Women 13 (1934): 202. (Wanda Tuchoch)

Dunning, Charles S. “The Gate Women Don’t Crash.” Liberty (14 May 1927): 31, 33.

Dyer, Richard. “The Colour of Virtue: Lillian Gish, Whiteness, and Femininity.”In Women and Film: A Sight and Sound Reader. Eds. Pam Cook and Philip Dodd. London: British Film Institute, 1993. 1-9.

Easton, Carol. No Intermissions: The Life of Agnes de Mille. New York: Da Capo Press, 2000.

Eaton Reeve, Winnifred [Onoto Watanna]. “Butchering Brains: An Author in Hollywood Is as a Lamb in an Abattoir.” Motion Picture Magazine vol. 36, no. 2. (September 1928): 28-29, 110-111.

Eckhardt, Joseph P. The King of the Movies: Film Pioneer Siegmund Lubin. Madison: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1997.

“Edith Ellis Discusses the Pictures.” New York Dramatic Mirror (26 May 1917): 23.

“Edna Williams, Film Executive.” Exhibitor’s Herald (23 Feb. 1918): 28.

“Edna Williams on Her Own.” Film Daily (19 December 1926): 14.

“Edna Williams Resigns.” Film Daily (19 September 1926): 2.

“Edna Williams Resigns As Foreign Manager for F.B.O.” Motion Picture News (25 September 1926): 1176.

“Ednella Corp. Formed.” Film Daily (1 October 1926): 4.

“Ednella Gets Tower Output.” Film Daily (3 March 1927): 2.

Eells, George. Hedda and Louella. New York: Putnam, 1972.

“Elaine Sterne Writes a Novel.” Moving Picture World (28 Apr. 1917): 600.

“Eleanor Gates in Photoplay Field.” Moving Picture World (30 May 1914): 1269.

“Elizabeth Pickett ‘Shoots’ Three Fox Varieties Hits in a Row and Starts out after More.” Fox Folks (Sept. 1926): 11-12.

Elsaesser, Thomas. Early Cinema: Space, Frame, Narrative. London: British Film Institute, 1990.

——. “The New Film History.” Sight and Sound vol. 55, no. 4 (1986): 246-251.

“Elsie Wilson and Rupert Julian with Rex.” The Moving Picture World (14 July 1914): 79.

Emerson, John and Anita Loos. How to Write Photoplays. New York: McCann, 1920.

Engen, Orrin A. Writer of the Plains: A Biography of B.M. Bower. Culver City, CA: Pontine Press, 1973.

Enstad, Nan. “Dressed for Adventure: Working Women and Silent Movie Serials in the 1910s.” Feminist Studies vol. 21, no. 1 (Spring 1995): 67-90.

“Entire Associated Producers Output; as General Manager for Its Members.” Moving Picture World (17 Sept. 1921): 261-262. (Mabel Normand)

Erens, Patricia. Sexual Stratagems: The World of Women in Film. New York: Horizon Press, 1979.

Ernst, Jimmy.  A Not-So-Still Life. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1984.

Esenwein , J. Berg, and Arthur Leeds.1913. Writing the Photoplay. Springfield, MA. The Home Correspondence School,  1919.

Estes, James E. Tales of Priest Lake. Spokane, WA, 1964.

Etherington-Smith, Meredith, and Jeremy Pilcher. The “It” Girls: Lucy, Lady Duff Gordon, the Couturière “Lucile,” and Elinor Glyn, Romantic Novelist. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1986.

“Eve Unsell, Guest Writer.” Morning Telegraph (20 May 1923): n.p.

“Eve Unsell to Make Own Production.” Morning Telegraph (24 Dec. 1922): 5.

“Eve Unsell on Two Jobs.” Morning Telegraph (30 Dec. 1923): n.p.

“Eve Unsell Signs With Schulberg.” Morning Telegraph (23 June 1923): n.p.

Everett, Eldon K. “The Great Grace Cunard-Francis Ford Mystery.” Classic Film Collector (Summer 1973): 22-25.

Everson, William K. American Silent Film. 1978. Rpt. New York: Da Capo Press, 1998.

——. The Hollywood Western: 90 Years of Cowboys and Indians, Train Robbers, Sheriffs and Gunslingers, and Assorted Heroes and Desperados. Secaucus, N.J.: Carol Pub. Group, 1992.

“Exhibitor’s Land ‘Midchannel,’ Clara Kimball Young’s Latest.” Moving Picture World (25 Sept. 1920): 514.

Eyman, Scott. Lion of Hollywood: The Life and Legend of Louis B. Mayer. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005.

——. Mary Pickford, America’s Sweetheart. New York: Donald I. Fine, Inc., 1990.

Fairfax, Marion. “The Feminine Mind in Picture Making.” Film Daily (7 June 1925): 9. Rpt. in Red Velvet Seat. Eds. Antonia Lant, and Ingrid Periz. New York and London: Verso, 2006. 655 [excerpted.]

——.  “Our Industry.” In The Truth About the Movies by the Stars. Ed. Laurence A. Hughes. Hollywood: Hollywood Publishers, 1924. 35.

“Famous Players Revolutionizes Policy of Production, Forming Stock Company.” Moving Picture World (13 Nov. 1920): 173. (Jeanie Macpherson, Belulah Marie Dix, Gloria Swanson, Mae Murray, Ouida Bergere)

Farrington, Mrs. Frank. “In the Costume Room.” Moving Picture World (21 July 1917): 389-390. (Mrs. Frank Farrington)

“Fatal Film ‘Stunt.” Times (London) (16 Aug. 1922): 8. (Pearl White)

Feldman, Joseph and Harry. “Women Directors Seem to Go More Often than They Come.” Films in Review (1950): 9-12. (Lois Weber, June Mathis, Dorothy Arzner)

Fell, John L. Film Before Griffith. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.

——. “The Memoirs of Alice Guy-Blaché.” Rev. Film Quarterly vol. 41, no. 3 (Spring 1988): 62.

“Feminine Sphere in the Field of Movies is Large Indeed, Says Clara S. Beranger.” Moving Picture World (2 Aug. 1919): 662; Rpt. in Red Velvet Seat. Eds. Antonia Lant, and Ingrid Periz. New York and London: Verso, 2006. 654. (Clara Beranger)

Fenin, George N., and William K. Everson. The Western, from Silents to Cinerama. New York: Orion Press, 1962.

Fernett, Gene. Poverty Row. Satellite Beach, FL: Coral Reef Publications, 1973.

Fields, Armond. Maude Adams: Idol of American Theater, 1872-1953. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2004.

Filene, Catherine. Careers for Women. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1920. [Motion Picture work section runs from 335-339.]

“Film Booking Offices, Inc., Announce Special Vera McCord Production ‘The Good-Bad Wife.’” Moving Picture World (24 Aug. 1920): 1020.

“Film Flashes, Our Modern Maidens” New York Times (1 Sept. 1929): X4. (Josephine Lovett)

“Film Frolics Pictures to Produce Six Two-Reel Comedies Yearly Starring Flora Finch.” Moving Picture World (7 Aug. 1920): 719.

“The Film Since 1889.” New York Times (24 Nov. 1935): X4. (Stella Simon)

“Film Writers Elect Mary M’call as Head.” New York Times (23 Nov. 1951): 33. (Adele Buffington)

“Film Writers Warm up for Guild Voting.” Los Angeles Times (8 Nov. 1951): A1. (Adele Buffington)

Finch, Christopher, and Linda Rosenkrantz. Gone Hollywood. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1979.

“Fine Arts Studios for Texas Guinan.” Moving Picture World (1 Oct. 1921): 551.

Finamore, Michelle Tolini. Hollywood Before Glamour: Fashion in American Silent Film. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

“First Newsreel Camera Girl Claimed by Kinograms.” The Film Daily (4 March 1928): 7. (Angela Murray Gibson)

Fischer, Lucy.“The Lady Vanishes: Women, Magic and the Movies.” Film Quarterly vol. 33, no. 1 (Autumn 1979): 30-40.

——. Shot/Countershot: Film Tradition and Women’s Cinema. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989.

Fishbein, Leslie. “The Demise of the Cult of True Womanhood in Early American Film, 1900-1930.” Journal of Popular Film and Television vol. 12, no. 2 (Summer 1984): 66-72.

Flaherty, Mrs. Robert J. [Frances Hubbard]. “The Camera’s Eye.” National Board of Review Magazine (Apr. 1927): 4-5.

——. The Odyssey of A Film-Maker: Robert Flaherty’s Story. 1960. Rpt. Putney, Vermont: Threshold Books, 1984.

“FLASHES. New $1,000,000 Star. Bessie Barriscale to Play Wide Range of Subjects.” Los Angeles Times (6 Dec. 1918): II3.

“Flora Finch’s First Fun Film.” Moving Picture World (28 Apr. 1917): 629.

“Florence Lawrence Story.” Moving Picture World (12 Mar. 1910): 365.

Ford, Charles. “The First Female Producer.” Films in Review vol. 15, no. 3 (1964): 141-145. (Alice Guy Blaché)

“Ford-Cunard Popularity Wave Hits India.” Motion Picture Weekly (27 May 1916): 31. (Grace Cunard)

Förster, Antonia Maria Josephina. Histories of Fame and Failure: Adriënne Solser, Musidora, Nell Shipman: Women Acting and Directing in the Silent Cinema in the Netherlands, France and North America. PhD. Dissertation, The Netherlands, Universiteit Utrecht, 2005.

——. Women in the Silent Cinema: Histories of Fame and Fate. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2017.

Fosheim Lund, Maria, Livia Bloom, and Daniela Bajar. “Behind the Typewriter The Role of Women in the Development of the Screenwriting Profession.”  Unpublished paper, Women and the Silent Screen Conference, June 2010.

Foster, Gwendolyn. “Looking in the Mirror: Women Filmmakers: A Bibliographic Essay.” Transformations vol. 6, no. 1 (Spring 1995): 39-57.

Foster, Gwendolyn Audrey, Katrien Jacobs, and Amy L. Unterburger. Women Filmmakers & Their Films. Detroit: St. James Press, 1998.

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Freeman, Jo. “Ruth Bryan Owen: Florida’s First Congresswoman.” Florida Association for Women Lawyers (Spring 2000): 15.

Friedberg, Anne. Window Shopping: Early Cinema and the Post Modern. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1993.

“From the War Zone to the Cycle: Alice Inwood, English Authoress and Actress, Comes to Join Lincoln Cycle Cast.” Moving Picture World (28 Aug. 1915): 1501.

Fuller, Kathryn H.  At the Picture Show: Small Town Audiences and the Creation of Movie Fan Culture. Washington DC: Smithsonian, 1997; Rpt. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 2001.

Fuller-Seeley, Kathryn. Celebrate Richmond Theater. Richmond: Ditz Press, 2001, 24-26.

Fussell, Betty Harper. Mabel. New York: Limelight Editions, 1992.

Gaines, Jane M. “Film History and the Two Presents of Feminist Film Theory.” Cinema Journal vol. 44, no.1 (2004): 119-126.

——. “First Fictions.” Signs vol. 30, no. 1 (Winter 2005), 1293 – 1317. (Alice Guy Blaché)

——. “The Ingenuity of Genre and the Genius of Women.” In Gender Meets Genre in Postwar Cinema. Ed. Christine Gledhill. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press. 2012. 15-28.

——.  “Madame Blaché’s Maternal Melodrama: New Love and the Old (1912).” In Alice Guy Blaché, Cinema Pioneer. Ed. Joan Simon. New Haven and London: Yale University Press in association with Whitney Museum of American Art, 2009. 77-80.

——.  “Of Cabbages and Authors.” In A Feminist Reader in Early Cinema. Eds. Jennifer M. Bean and Diane Negra. Durham: Duke University Press, 2002. 88-118.

——.  “Pink-Slipped: What Happened to Women in the Silent Film Industry?” Blackwell’s History of American Film. Eds. Roy-Michael Grundmann, Art Simon, and Cynthia A. Lucia. London: Blackwell, 2012. 155-177.

——. “Queering Feminist Film Theory.” Jump Cut 41 (May 1997): 45-48. (Dorothy Arzner)

——. “Sad Songs of Nitrate.” Camera Obscura 66 vol. 22, no. 3 (Fall 2007): 171-178.

——. “Women and the Cinematification of the World.” In Not So Silent: Women in Cinema Before Sound. Eds. Sofia Bull and Astrid Söderbergh Widding. Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, 2010. 20-38.

——. “World Women: Still Circulating Silent Era Film Prints.” Framework vol. 51, no. 2 (Fall 2010): 283-303.

Gaines, Jane M. and Monica Dall’Asta. “Prologue. Constellations: Past Meets Present in Feminist Film History.” In Doing Women’s Film History. Reframing Cinemas, Past and Future. Eds. Christine Gledhill and Julia Knight. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2015. 13-28

Gaines, Thomas. Vitalic Breathing: The Miracle Air Discovery. New York: Health Research Books, 1947. (Vera McCord)

Gallagher, Catherine, and Stephen Greenblatt. Practicing New Historicism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

Gallo, Joe. “Flashback: New England Director Larry Trimble.” Imagine News (March 2000): n.p. (Jane Murfin).

Gardner Mayorga, Margaret. Representative One-Act Plays by American Authors. New York: Little, Brown, and Company, 1919.

Gates, Harvey. “Alice Blaché, a Dominant Figure in Pictures: How a French Woman Came to this Country and Built up a Big Business.” New York Dramatic Mirror (6 Nov. 1912): 28; Rpt. in Red Velvet Seat. Eds. Antonia Lant, and Ingrid Periz. New York and London: Verso, 2006: 656 [excerpted.]

“Gauntier Feature Players.” Moving Picture World (21 Dec. 1912): 1169.

Gauntier, Gene. “Blazing the Trail.” Woman’s Home Companion (Oct. 1928): 7-8, 181-184, 186; (Nov. 1928): 25-26, 166, 168-170; (Dec. 1928): 15-16, 132, 134; (Jan. 1929): 13-14, 94; (Feb. 1929): 20-21, 92, 94, 97-98; (Mar. 1929): 18-19, 142, 146. Rpt. in Red Velvet Seat. Eds. Antonia Lant and Ingrid Periz. London and New York: Verso, 2006. 624-626 [first installment excerpt.]

——. “Blazing the Trail.” Typescript of the memoir. MoMA.

——. “Blazing the Trail.” Online access via The Silent Bookshelf: Blazing the Trail_1Blazing the Trail_2Blazing the Trail_3Blazing the Trail_4Blazing the Trail_5Gene Gauntier.

——. “Gauntier Players in Ireland.” Moving Picture World (14 Oct. 1913): 39.

——. “Picture Players at a Turkish Wedding.” Moving Picture World (20 July 1912): 253-254.

Gebhardt, Myrtle. “Business Women in Film Studios.” Business Women (Dec. 1923): 26-28, 66-68. (Ray Carroll, Milba Lloyd, Jeanie Macpherson, Olga Printzlau, Eve Unsell, Agnes Leahy, Elizabeth McGaffey, Clara Beranger, Winifred Dunn, Bradley King, Edith Wakeling)

“George Fitzmaurice—Ouida Bergere Join in New Deal with Famous Players—Lasky.” Moving Picture World (28 Feb. 1920): 1490.

“Gene Gauntier Players at Work.” Moving Picture World (18 Jan. 1913): 274.

Gevison, Alan. “The Birth of the American Feature Film.” The Path to Hollywood, 1911–1920. Eds. Paolo Cherchi-Usai and Lorenzo Codelli. Edizioni Biblioteca dell’Imagine, 1988. 154.

Giebler, A.H. “Los Angeles News Letter by A. H. Giebler.” Moving Picture World (3 July 1920): 93. (Margery Wilson)

——. “Rubbernecking in Filmland.” Moving Picture World (16 Oct. 1920): 951-952. (Julia Crawford Ivers)

——. “That Something – Margery Wilson.” Harrison’s Reports vol. III, no. 15 (9 Apr. 1921): n.p.

Giebler, Nora B. “Rubbernecking in Filmland.” Moving Picture World (18 June 1921): 719. (June Mathis)

Gilliams, E. Leslie. “The New Woman Director.” Motion Picture Director (Oct. 1926): 70.

——. “Will Woman Leadership Change the Movies?” Illustrated World (Feb. 1923): 859-861, 956. (Bradley King, Anna Maloney, Blanche Sewell, Dot Farley, Irene Morra, Kora Newell, Miriam Meredith)

Ginzberg, Carlos. Clues, Myths, and the Historical Method. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990.

“The Girl Spy.” Motion Picture World (22 May 1909): 672. (Gene Gauntier)

“The Girls Who Do Not Act.” Picture-Play Magazine (Dec. 1924): 102, 119. (June Mathis, Frances Marion, Jeanie Macpherson)

Giroux, Robert. A Deed of Death: the Story Behind the Unsolved Murder of Hollywood Director William Desmond Taylor. New York: Knopf, 1990. (Julia Crawford Ivers)

Gish, Lillian. “Beginning Young: The Story of Lillian Gish.” Ladies’ Home Journal 42 (Sept. 1925): 19, 117-120; Rpt. in Red Velvet Seat. Eds. Antonia Lant and Ingrid Periz. New York and London: Verso, 2006. 623-624.

——. “In Defense of the Silent Film.” Revolt in the Arts; A Survey of the Creation, Distribution and Appreciation of Art in America. Ed. Oliver Martin Sayler. New York: Brentano’s, 1930. 225-30.

——. “Lillian Gish…Director.” Interview with Anthony Slide. Silent Picture 6 (Spring 1920): 12-13.

——. “On Behalf of the Silent Film.” Revolt in the Arts; A Survey of the Creation, Distribution and Appreciation of Art in America. Ed. Oliver Martin Sayler. New York: Brentano’s, 1930. 225-30.

——. “A Universal Language.” The Theater and Motion Pictures: A Selection of Articles from the New 14th Edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. New York and London: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1929-33. 33-34.

Gish, Lillian and Ann Pinchot. Lillian Gish: The Movies, Mr. Griffith, and Me. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1969.

Glancy, Mark. “Temporary American Citizens? British Audiences, Hollywood Films and the Threat of Americanization in the 1920s.” Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television vol. 26, no. 4 (22 January 2007): 461-484

Gledhill, Christine, ed. Home Is Where the Heart is: Studies in Melodrama and the Woman’s Film. London: British Film Institute, 1987.

——.  “Introduction: Transnationalizing Women’s Film History.” Framework 51:2 (Fall 2010): 275-282.

——. ed. Stardom: Industry of Desire. New York: Routledge, 1991.

Gledhill, Christine and Knight, Julia, ed. Doing Women’s Film History. Reframing Cinemas, Past and Future. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2015.

Glyn, Anthony. Elinor Glyn: A Biography. London: Hutchinson, 1955.

——. The Elinor Glyn System of Writing. 4 vols. Auburn: The Author’s Press, 1922.

——. “In Filmdom’s Boudoir.” Photoplay (Mar. 1921): 28-30; Rpt. in They Also Wrote for the Fan Magazines: Film Articles by Literary Giants from e.e. cummings to Eleanor Roosevelt, 1920-1939. Ed. Anthony Slide. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1992.  76-79.

——. Romantic Adventure; Being the Autobiography of Elinor Glyn. London: Nicholson & Watson, 1936.

——. “Sex and the Photoplay.” Motion Picture Magazine (June 1921): 21; Rpt. They Also Wrote for the Fan Magazines: Film Articles by Literary Giants from e.e. cummings to Eleanor Roosevelt, 1920-1939. Ed. Anthony Slide. London: McFarland, 1992. 80-81.

——. “What I Find Wrong with Hollywood.” Photoplay.

“Glyn & Glynne.” Photoplay (May 1924): 53, 129. (Elinor Glyn)

Goldwyn, Samuel. Behind the Screen. New York: George H. Doran Co, 1923.

Gomery, Douglas. Shared Pleasures: A History of Movie Presentation in the United States. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1992.

“Good-Bad Wife.” Adv. Mansfield News (22 Mar. 1921): 5. (Vera McCord)

“Good-Bad Wife.” Rev. Motion Picture World (24 Aug. 1920): 1020. (Vera McCord)

“Good-Bad Wife.” Rev. Motion Picture World (30 Oct. 1920): 1294. (Vera McCord)

“Good-Bad Wife.” Rev. Photoplay (Jan. 1921): 104. (Vera McCord)

“Good-Bad Wife.” Rev. Variety in Variety Film Reviews, 1921-1925, vol. 2 (21 Jan. 1921): 4, col. 12. (Vera McCord)

Goodman, George Jr. “Corinne Griffith, Silent Movie Star.” Obit. New York Times (22 July 1979): 34.

“Good Things A-Coming for 1918. And the People Who Will Contribute Them.” Motion Picture Magazine vol. 14, no. 11 (Dec. 1917): 120-122. (Gladys Hall)

“Grab Plots on Treks Through the Southland.” Los Angeles Times (7 Oct. 1923): VI11.(Sada Cowan).

“Grace Cunard.” Moving Picture World (19 Feb. 1916): 1115.

Grau, Robert. “The Twenty Greatest of Filmdom.” Motion Picture Magazine (May 1916): 109-111, 181. (Mary Pickford, Anita Stewart, Lois Weber, Clara Kimball Young)

——. The Theatre of Science. New York: Broadway Pub. Co., 1914.

“Great Campaign on Mrs. Chaplin, Louis  Mayer Plans far Reaching Publicity Drive on Star to Bring her Before all the Public.” Motion Picture News (8 Nov. 1919): 3606. (Anita Stewart)

Greene, Patterson. “Zoe Akins Wins Fame as Poet, Playwright, Screen Writer.” Los Angeles Examiner (3 June 1951): n.p.

Grieveson, Lee. Policing Cinema: Movies and Censorship in Early Twentieth-Century America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004.

Grieveson, Lee and Peter Krämer, eds. The Silent Cinema Reader. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Grimm, Buckey. “May Tully.” Vaudeville Times (Spring 1999): 19-22.

Grossman, Andrew. “Fay Tincher.” Senses of Cinema (December 2002): n.p.

Guinan, Texas. “My Life –And How!” New York Evening Journal (29 April- 25 May 1929): n.p.

——. “Texas Guinan Says.” [New York] Graphic (15 Sept. 1930-17 Oct. 1931): n.p. Clippings file. NYPL-SASB

Gunning, Tom. “Film History and Film Analysis: The Individual Film in the Course of Time.” Wide Angle vol. 12, no. 3 (1990): 4-19.

Hadleigh, Boze. Hollywood Lesbians. New York: Barricade Books, 1994. (Dorothy Arzner)

Hall, Gladys. “Here Are the Movie Mommers!” Photoplay vol. 21, no. 1 (Dec. 1921): 77.

——. “Lamentations of a Lady Interviewer.” Photoplay vol. 21, no. 4 (March 1922): 82.

——.“Lights! Says Lillian!” Motion Picture Magazine (April-May 1920): 30-31, 102.

——. “Olga Petrova—A Film Feminist.” Filmplay (May 1922): 34-5.

——. “Once Upon a Time in Hollywood.” Undated notes for an unpublished autobiography. 3 pages. Gladys Hall papers, folder 541. AMPAS-SC.

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——.“We Interview Gloria Swanson.” Motion Picture Magazine vol. 32, no. 3 (Oct. 1926): 28-29, 94-96, 107.

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——. “Writing the Titles.” Opportunities in the Motion Picture Industry. Vol. 2. Los Angles: Photoplay Research Society, 1922: 49-53.

“His Pulpit Now a Saddle.” New York Times (30 Jan. 1927): X7. (Vera McCord)

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——.  “New Solax Plant at Fort Lee.” Moving Picture World (14 Sept. 1912): 1061-1062. (Alice Guy Blaché)

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——.  “Rotarians View Picture: ‘That Something’ is Given Special Showing at Atlantic City Gathering.” Motion Picture News vol. XXII, no. 3 (10 July 1920): 477. (Margery Wilson)

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——.  The Wages of Sin: Censorship and the Fallen Woman Film, 1928-1942. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1991.

——. “The Woman’s Picture and the Poetics of Melodrama.” Camera Obscura 31 (1993): 121-147.

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——. “Roll for Music Interpretation.” Exhibitors Trade Review vol. 10, no. 18 (1 October 1921): 1274.

——. Letter. “What a Progressive Musician Has to Say.” Motion Picture News vol.19, no. 15 (12 April 1919): 2346. 

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——.  Bride in the Solomons. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1944.

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——. “‘To Here from Modernity’: Style, Historiography and Transitional Cinema.” In American Cinema’s Transitional Era: Audiences, Institutions, Practices. Eds. Charlie Keil and Shelley Stamp. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004. 51-65.

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——.  Dreams for Sale: The Rise and Fall of the Triangle Film Corporation. South Brunswick, N.J.: A.S. Barnes, 1971.

——.  Kops and Custards; The Legend of Keystone Films. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1968. (Mabel Normand, Marie Dressler)

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——.  Winners of the West: The Sagebrush Heroes of the Silent Screen. New York: A.S. Barnes, 1970.

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——.  “I Like ‘em When They’re Bad. Good Bad Pictures and Those Just Bad.” Theater Magazine (July 1927): 41.

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——. The Talmadge Girls: A Memoir. New York: Viking Press, 1978.

——. “Women Do A Lot for the Screen, Anita Loos Says, Besides Act on It.” New York Herald Tribune (16 Sept. 1940): 24, 30.

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“Mabel Condon Will Visit New York for Vacation.” Motion Picture News vol. 16, no. 17 (25 Oct 1917): 2889. 

MacDonald, Margaret. “Alice Brady Talks About Dress and Make-Up.” Moving Picture World (21 July 1917): 426.

——.  “Mary O’Connor Illuminates Studio System While Angling for New Ideas.” Moving Picture World (26 June 1920): 1737.

MacDonald, M.I. “Miss Pearl White to Become Aviator.” Moving Picture News (12 Oct. 1912): 19.

MacDonald, Margaret I. “Mrs. Mary Lawton Metcalfe Gives the Moving Picture First Place as an Educator.” The Moving Picture News vol. 4, no. 43 (28 October 1911): 6-7.

MacDowell, Josephine. “Lois Weber Understands Girls.” Cinema Art (Jan. 1927): 18, 38.

MacGrath, Harold, ed. The Adventures of Kathlyn. Kathlyn Williams De Luxe Edition. Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1914. [See also: MacGrath, Harold. The Adventures of Kathlyn: Synopsis of a Serial Novel. Folder 1, William Selig Collection, AMPAS].

MacMahon, Henry. “Educational Films.” Photoplay (Jan. 1919): 40-42.

——.  “Women Directors of Plays and Pictures.” Ladies Home Journal (20 Dec. 1920): 12-14, 143-145. (Mrs. Sidney Drew, Lois Weber, Lillian Gish, Jeanie Macpherson, Ruth Ann Baldwin, Elsie Jane Wilson, Eugenie Magnus Ingleton, Ann Maxwell, Gene Gauntier, Alice Guy Blaché, Ida May Park, Mary Pickford, Frances Marion, Ouida Bergere, Clara Beranger, Eve Unsell, Anita Loos)

Macpherson, Jeanie. “Building the Dramatic Scenario.” In The Truth About the Movies by the Stars. Ed. Laurence A. Hughes. Hollywood: Hollywood Publishers, 1924: 382-84.

——.  “A Day in the Life of a Scenario Writer.” Moving Picture Stories (9 July 1920): 21.

——. “Development of Photodramatic Writing.” Moving Picture World (21 July 1917): 393. Rpt. in Film History vol. 9, no. 3 (1997): 274-75.

——.  “Functions of the Continuity Writer.” Opportunities in the Motion Picture Industry. Vol. 2. Los Angeles: Photoplay Research Society, 1922.  22-35.

——.  “Hints to Scenario Writers.” Column. Movie Weekly (15 Oct. 1921): 23; (22 Oct. 1921): 25; (29 Oct. 1921): 14; (5 Nov. 1921): 26; (12 Nov. 1921): 28; (26 Nov. 1921): 29; (3 Dec. 1921): 27; (17 Dec. 1921): 31; (24 Dec. 1921):31; (24 Dec. 1921): 31.

——. The Necessity and Value of Theme in the Photoplay. Los Angeles: Palmer Photoplay Corp., 1920.

——. “The Subtitle—Friend and Foe.” Motion Picture Director (Dec. 1926): 32, 74.

——, with Edward Weitzel. “Jeanie Macpherson in Film Limits and the Joys of Unbounded Space.” Moving Picture World (17 Jan. 1920): 401.

“Mae Murray in the ‘Eternal Columbine.’” Moving Picture World (8 Dec. 1917): 517.

Maeder, Edward. Hollywood and History: Costume Design in Film. London: Thames and Hudson, 1987.

Mahar, Karen Ward. “True Womanhood in Hollywood: Gendered Business Strategies and the Rise and Fall of the Woman Filmmaker, 1896-1928.” Enterprise and History vol. 2, no. 1 (2001): 72-110.

——. Women Filmmakers in Early Hollywood. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.

——. “Women, Filmmaking, and the Gendering of the American Film Industry, 1896-1928.” Unpublished PhD Dissertation. University of Southern California, 1995.

Mann, W. J. Behind the Screen: How Lesbians and Gays Shaped Hollywood, 1910-1969. New York: Viking Press, 2001.

Manners, Dorothy. “Old Friends Talk of Alice Terry.” Picture Play (Sept. 1925): 99, 100.

“Margaret Booth, Film Editor, 104.” Obit. New York Times (2 Nov. 2002): B7.

“Margaret Turnbull to Write Continuities at Islington.” Moving Picture World (4 Sept. 1920): 66.

Margerie, Movie. “The Feminine Touch on the Film, Which is –Wanted.” Pictures and Picturegoer (2-9 Nov. 1918): 449.

“Marion E. Wong, Chinese Film Producer.” Moving Picture World (7 July 1917): 63.

“Marion Fairfax Forms Production Unit; First Offering to Be ‘the Lying Truth.’” Moving Picture World (23 Apr. 1921): 847.

“Marion Fairfax, Dramatist, Is with Lasky.” Moving Picture World (12 June 1915): 64.

“Marion Fairfax Now a Lasky Photo-Dramatist.” Moving Picture World (12 June 1915): 1783.

Marion, Frances. How to Write and Sell Film Stories. 1937. New York: Garland Pub., 1978.

——. Off with Their Heads: A Serio-Comic Tale of Hollywood. New York: Macmillan, 1972.

——.  “Scenario Writing.” Behind the Screen: How Films Are Made. Ed. Stephen Watts. London: Arthur Barker, ltd., 1938.

——. “Why Do They Change the Stories on the Screen?” Photoplay (March 1926): 38-39, 144-45.

——, with Mary B. Mullet. “Frances Marion: A Girl Who Has Won Frame and Fortune Writing Scenarios.” American Magazine (May 1924): 18-19, 126-7, 134-6.

Marlowe, Cynthia. “The Boudoir of Film Favorites.” Paramount Picture Progress (Oct. 1915): 8.

Marsh, Mae. Screen Acting. Los Angeles: Photostar Pub. Co, 1921.

Martin, Alice. “From ‘Wop’ Parts to Bossing the Job.” Photoplay (Oct. 1916): 95-7. (Jeanie Macpherson)

Martinelli, Vittorio. “Unsere Henny.” Griffithiana (1990): 7-8.

“Mary O’Connor Will Now Give Scenarios Entire Attention.” Moving Picture World (25 Sept. 1920): 514.

“Mary MacLane Picture Finished.” Moving Picture World (8 Dec. 1917): 517.

“Mary Murrillo Added to Talmadge Staff.” Moving Picture World (6 Sept. 1919): 1472.

“Mary Murillo, Script Writer Extraordinary.” Moving Picture World (16 Mar. 1918): 1525.

“Mary Murillo to Write for Select.” Moving Picture World (29 June 1918): 1871.

“Marvin Breckinridge.” Vassar College Encyclopedia, Vassar College (2012). n.p.

Mashon, Mike. “The Films of Aloha Wanderwell Baker: An Archival Collaboration.” Now See Hear! Library of Congress (March 2015): n.p.

Mason, Laura Kent. “Capturing the Caption.” Motion Picture Magazine (24 Jan. 1923): 39-40, 90. (Anita Loos and Jeanie Macpherson)

Massa, Steve. “Some Job – Film Career of Fay Tincher.” Slapstick 10 (Summer 2004): 18-30.

Mathis, June. “Elements of a Screen Story.” The Truth About the Movies by the Stars. Ed. Laurence A. Hughes. Hollywood: Hollywood Publishers, 1924. 378-79.

——. “European-Made American Pictures.” Motion-Picture Director (Feb. 1925): 7, 30-31.

——.  “The Feminine Mind in Picture Making.” Film Daily (7 June 1925): 115; Rpt. in Red Velvet Seat. Eds. Antonia Lant and Ingrid Periz. New York and London: Verso, 2006. 663-665.

——. “Harmony in Picture-Making.” Film Daily (6 May 1923): 5. Rpt. in Red Velvet Seat, eds. Antonia Lant and Ingrid Periz. New York and London: Verso, 2006: 662-663.

——. “June Mathis Confers with Ibanez on Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse.” Moving Picture World (17 Jan. 1920): 431.

——. “Pursuing a Motion Picture Plot.” The Photo-Play Journal (Oct. 1917): 24.

——.“Scenario Writers Must Find Theme.” New York Times (15 Apr. 1923): sec. 7:3.

——. “Symbolism in the Silent Drama.” Motion Picture Director (Dec. 1925): 31-32.

——. “Tapping the Thought Wireless.” Moving Picture World (21 July 1917): 409.

——. “The ‘Wave Length’ of Success.” Motion Picture Director (Feb. 1927): 22.

——. “Women’s Work in Motion Pictures.” Motion Picture Magazine (Aug. 1923): 28.

Maude Adams Invents Stage Lighting Device; Her Novel Theory of Stage Illumination Developed from a Hobby and Now for the First Time to Be Put to Practical Use.” The New York Times (5 January 1908): 108.

Maule, Rosanna. “Women Filmmakers and the Postfeminism in the Age of Multimedia Reproduction: A Virtual Archive for Women’s Cinema.” Framework vol. 51, no. 2 (Fall 2010): 350-353.

“May Allison Heads Murfin Picture Cast.” Los Angeles Times (17 Apr. 1923): I11.

May, Henry Farnham. The End of the American Innocence: A Study of the First Years of Our Own Time, 1912-1917. New York: Knopf, 1959.

Mayne, Judith. Cinema and Spectatorship. London and New York: Routledge, 1993.

——. Directed by Dorothy Arzner. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994.

——. “Immigrants and Spectators.” Wide Angle vol. 5, no. 2 (1982): 32-41.

——. “Lesbian Looks: Dorothy Arzner and Female Authorship.” How Do I Look?: Queer Film and Video. Ed. Bad Object-Choices. Seattle: Bay Press, 1991. 103-135.

——. The Woman at the Keyhole: Feminism and Women’s Cinema. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.

Mayo, Margaret. “Entertain Your Audiences.” New York Times (11 Sept. 1910): X5.

——. Our Fate and the Zodiac: An Astrological Autograph Book. New York: Brentano’s, 1901.

——. Trooping for the Troupes: Fun-Making at the Front. New York: George H. Doran Company, 1919.

McCreadie, Marsha. “Pioneers.” Films in Review vol. 45, no. 11-12 (Nov-Dec 1994): 40-54. (June Mathis, Frances Marion)

——. “Pioneers (Part 2).” Films in Review vol. 46, no. 1/2 (1995): 22-32, 58. (Anita Loos, Clara Beranger, Bess Meredyth, Adele Buffington, Gladys Unger, Claudine West, Jeanie Macpherson)

——. The Women Who Write the Movies: From Frances Marion to Nora Ephron. Secaucus, N.J.: Carol Pub. Group, 1994.

McDonald, Margaret I. “Clara Kimball Young Discusses Picture Art.” Moving Picture World (21 July 1917): 461.

——. “Norma Talmadge a Modern Female.” Moving Picture World (21 July 1917): 390.

McGilligan, Patrick. Backstory: Interviews with Screenwriters of Hollywood’s Golden Age. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986.

McGreevey, Tom, and Joanne Louise Yeck. Our Movie Heritage. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1997.

McHugh, Kathleen Anne. American Domesticity: From How-To Manual to Hollywood Melodrama. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

McKenna, Denise. “The City That Made the Picture Move: Gender, Labor and the Film Industry in Los Angeles, 1908-1917.” Unpublished PhD Dissertation, New York University, 2008.

——. “The Photoplay or the Pickaxe: Extras, Gender and Labour in Early Hollywood.” Film History vol. 23, no. 1 (2011): 5-19.

McKenzie, Howard Glenn. “William Jennings Bryan in Miami, 1915-1925.” Unpublished PhD Dissertation. University of Miami, 1956.

McKernan, Luke. “Gaston, Maurice and Mary.” (16 May 2015): n.p.

——. “Searching for Mary Murillo.” In Doing Women’s Film History. Reframing Cinemas, Past and Future. Eds. Christine Gledhill and Julia Knight. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2015. 78-94.

McMahan, Alison. Alice Guy Blaché: Lost Visionary of the Cinema. New York: Continuum, 2002.

——. “Madame Blaché in America: Director, Producer, Studio Owner.” In Alice Guy Blaché, Cinema Pioneer. Ed. Joan Simon. New Haven and London: Yale University Press in association with Whitney Museum of American Art, 2009. 47-76.

McNamara, Sue. “The Girl Who Just Wouldn’t Quit: A Tale of Persistence.” Pantomime (1 April 1922): 26-27, 30. (Edna Williams)

McQuade, James S. “Chicago’s Woman Manager.”Film Index (27 Nov. 1909): 6. (Leona Bryse)

Mehr, Linda Harris. “Down Off the Pedestal; Some Modern Heroines in Popular Culture, 1890-1917.” Unpublished. PhD Dissertation. University of California, Los Angeles. 1973.

“Mere Girl Takes Man’s Job and Makes Idle Hour Most Attractive Theater.” Exhibitor’s Trade Review (10 April 1920): 2144. (Nettie Hutchinson)

Meredyth, Bess. “Screen Plays-the New Technique.” Story World (Feb. 1925): 28.

Metcalfe, Mary Lawton. “The Captain’s Treasure: Mental Films for a Picture Story.” The Moving Picture News vol. 4, no. 52 (20 December 1911): 17.

——. “Carolina Belle.” Rev. Talking Picture Magazine vol. 1, no. 3 (December 1929): 19.

——. “First Impressions of Living Pictures–The Manufacture of Mental Films–How to Project Memory Pictures: Scientific Principles of Psychology in Human Reproduction.” The Moving Picture News vol. 4, no. 44 (4 November 1911): 14-15.

——. “Moving Pictures Aid in Education.” The Moving Picture News (21 September 1912): 19. 

——. “A Practical Plan for Teaching Without Books.” The Moving Picture News vol. 4, no. 49 (9 December 1911): 6.

——. “‘Real-I-Zation’ and the Cosmos.” Washington Times (23 November 1917): 20.

——. “Snapshots—Women’s Views of Vital Interest to Moving Picture Trade.” The Moving Picture News vol. 7, no. 16 (13 April 1913): 23.

——. “Snips and Snaps of News by a Peripatetic Camera.” The Moving Picture News vol. 5, no. 21 (25 May 1912): 28-29.

Meyers, Jeffrey. “New Light on Iris Barry.” Paideuma (Fall 1984): 285-289.

Miles, Allie Lowe, and Bess Meredyth. When a Man Loves: The Story of a Deathless Passion. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1927.

“Miriam Nesbitt, Director.” Moving Picture World (7 Aug. 1915): 976.

“Miss Coffee Signs.” Moving Picture World (7 May 1927): 39.

“Miss Gauntier Wants.” Moving Picture World (18 Jan. 1913): 258.

“Miss Grace Haskins Fights Obstacles to Produce Movie.” Washington Post (24 June 1923): 57.

“Miss Katharine Eggleston.” Moving Picture World (11 July 1914): 259.

“Miss Kathlyn Williams Tells of Experiences with Wild Animals.” Paste-Pot and Shears (27 Sept. 1915): n.p.

“Miss Keller’s Own Work.” New York Times (24 Aug. 1919): 4. (Helen Keller)

“Miss Leitzbach Leaves Fox Films.” Moving Picture World (10 Aug. 1918): 858.

“Miss Normand, Director.” Moving Picture World (13 Dec. 1913): 1289.

“Miss Turnbull’s Book.” Moving Picture World (30 Nov. 1918): 940.

“Miss Vera McCord.” Obit. New York Times (4 March 1949): 21.

“Miss Weber Has Record of One Script a Week for Three Years.” Universal Weekly (14 Feb. 1914): 1914.

Mitchell, Glenn. A-Z of Silent Film Comedy. London: Batsford, 1998.

Miyao, Daisuke. Sessue Hayakawa: Silent Cinema and Transnational Stardom. Durham: Duke University Press, 2007.

“Mme. Olga Petrova Easily the Busiest of Women.” Motion Picture News (29 Sept. 1917): 2176.

Modleski, Tania. “Some Functions of Feminist Criticism, or the Scandal of the Mute Body.” October 49 (Summer 1989): 3-24.

Moi, Toril. What Is a Woman? And Other Essays. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Montagu, Ivor. Birmingham Sparrow: In Memoriam, Iris Barry, 1896-1969. Sight & Sound vol. 39, no. 2 (Spring 1970): 106-107.

Moore, Robert F. “Mary Pickford, Manager.” Motion Picture Magazine (August 1917): 69-70.

Morey, Anne. “Elinor Glyn as Hollywood Laborer.” Film History vol. 18, no. 2 (2006): 110-118.

——. “‘Have You the Power?’: The Palmer Photoplay Corporation and The Film Viewer/ Author in the 1920s.” Film History vol. 9, no. 3 (1997): 300-319.

——. Hollywood Outsiders: The Adaptation of the Film Industry, 1913 – 1934. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2003.

——. “Would You Be Ashamed to Let Them See What You Have Written?” The Gendering of Photoplaywrights, 1913-23.” Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature vol. 17, no. 1 (Spring 1998): 83-99.

Morgan, Mary. “Mayo, Margaret – Successful Playwright.” Theater 12 (July-Dec. 1910): 103.

Morris, Michael. Madam Valentino: The Many Lives of Natacha Rambova. New York: Abbeville Press, 1991.

“The Motion Picture Hall of Fame.” Motion Picture Magazine (Dec 1918): 12. (Pearl White)

Moulton, Herbert. “Living Drama Mirrors Film Writer’s Ideals.” Los Angeles Times (24 Oct. 1923): WF7, 14. (Winifred Dunn)

“Movie Chief’s Rapid Rise: A Cinema Chief.” New York Times (3 June 1928): 10. (Vera McCord)

“A Moving Picture Jewelry Shop.” Moving Picture World (30 Dec. 1911): 1075. (Marion Leonard)

“Mrs. Breuil Retires.” Moving Picture World (9 Aug. 1913): 630.

“Mrs. Breuil’s Plans.” Moving Picture World (18 Oct. 1913): 738.

“Mrs. Clement and Her Work.” Moving Picture World (15 Oct. 1910): 859-860. (Josephine Clement)

“Mrs. Fahrney Centaur Editor.” Moving Picture World (14 Nov. 1914): 943. (Mrs. Milton H. Fahrney)

“Mrs. Russell, Authoress of Title.” Moving Picture World (9 Feb. 1918): 836. (Lillian Case Russell, Olga Petrova)

“Mrs. Warrenton Starts Children’s Photoplays.” Moving Picture World (17 Feb. 1917): 1030. (Lule Warrenton)

Mugno, Christina M. The Cinema of Mabel Normand. Unpublished PhD Dissertation. Wayne State University, 1998.

Mullett, Mary B. “The Heroine of a Thousand Dangerous Stunts.” American Magazine (Sept. 1921): 32-35. (Pearl White)

Mulvagh, Jane. Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London: Viking, 1988.

Mulvey, Laura. “Hollywood Cinema and Feminist Theory: A Strange but Persistent Relationship.” Iris 26 (1998): 23-32.

——. “Visual Pleasure and the Narrative Cinema.” Screen vol. 16, no. 3 (Autumn 1975): 6-18.

Münsterberg, Hugo. The Film: A Psychological Study. 1916. Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publications Inc., 2004.

Murfin, Jane. “The Feminine Mind in Picture Making.” Film Daily (7 June 1925): 9.

——.  “Sex and the Screen.” The Truth About Movies by the Stars. Ed. Laurence A. Hughes. Hollywood: Hollywood Publishers, 1924: 459-61; Rpt. in Red Velvet Seat. Eds. Antonia Lant and Ingrid Periz, London and New York: Verso, 2006. 666-667.

——.  “Trained by Kindness.” Los Angeles Times (11 June 1924): A4.

“Murillo, Mary.” Motion Picture Studio Directory and Trade Annual 1921. New York: Motion Picture News Inc., 1921. 291.

Murray, Nickolas. “They Won Success With Unique Records.” National Brain Power (April 1923): 28. (Gladys Hall).

Muscio, Giuliana. “American Women Screenwriters in the 1920s.” In Doing Women’s Film History. Reframing Cinemas, Past and Future. Eds. Christine Gledhill and Julia Knight. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2015. 193-205.

——. “Women Screenwriters in American Silent Cinema.” Unpublished Paper, Women and the Silent Screen III. Concordia University, Montreal, Canada, June 2004

Musser, Charles. “American Vitagraph: 1897 -1901.” Cinema Journal vol. 22, no. 3 (Spring 1983): 4-46.

——. “The American Vitagraph, 1897-1901: Survival and Success in a Competitive Industry.” Film Before Griffith. Ed. John Fell. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983. 22-66.

——.  “At the Beginning: Motion Picture Production, Representation and Ideology at the Edison and Lumière Companies.” The Silent Cinema Reader. Eds. Lee Grieveson and Peter Krämer. London and New York: Routledge, 2004. 51-62.

——.  Before the Nickelodeon: Edwin S. Porter and the Edison Manufacturing Company. Berkley: University of California Press, 1991.

——. Edison Motion Pictures, 1890-1900: An Annotated Filmography. Italy: Le Giornate del Cinema Muto, 1997.

——.  The Emergence of Cinema: The American Screen to 1907. History of the American Cinema, Vol. 1. New York: Scribner, 1990.

——. “The Nickelodeon Era Begins: Establishing the Framework for Hollywood’s Mode of Representation.” Framework no. 22-23 (Autumn 1983): 4-11.

——. “On Extras,’ Mary Pickford, and the Red Light Film: Filmmaking in the United States, 1913.” Griffithiana 50 (1994): 149-75.

——. “Pre-Classical American Cinema: Its Changing Modes of Production.” Persistence of Vision 9 (1991): 46-65.

——. “The Wages of Feminism.” Alice Guy Blaché, Cinema Pioneer. Ed. Joan Simon. New Haven and London: Yale University Press in association with Whitney Museum of American Art, 2009. 81-100.

Munro Neely, Hugh. “A Studio of Her Own: Women Producers at First National, 1918-1928.” Unpublished paper, Women and the Silent Screen Conference, June 2010.

Muybridge, Eadweard. The Male and Female Figure in Motion: 60 Classic Photographic Sequences. New York: Dover Press, 1984.

“My Most Difficult Scene.” Motion Picture Magazine (May 1918): 75-78. (Clara Kimball Young, Bessie Barriscale)

Nasaw, David. The Chief: The Life of William Randolph Hearst. Boston: Houghton, 2000.

Naumburg, Nancy, ed. We Make the Movies. New York: Norton, 1937.

Neal, Gabler. An Empire of Their Own: How the Jews Invented Hollywood. New York: Doubleday, 1988.

Nelson, Richard Alan. Lights! Camera! Florida!: Ninety Years of Moviemaking and Television Production in the Sunshine State. Tampa: Florida Endowment for the Humanities, 1991. (Ruth Bryan Owen)

Neville, James. “Olga Petrova.” The Silent Picture 18 (1973): 4-12.

“New Love for Old.” Moving Picture World (16 Feb. 1918): 1002. (Elsie Jane Wilson)

“News Notes from Movieland.” The Capital Times (24 December, 1917): n.p. (Francelia Billington)

“The New Solax Plant.” Motion Picture News (21 Sept. 1912): 10-11. (Alice Guy Blaché)

“New Solax Plant at Fort Lee.” Moving Picture World (14 Sept. 1912): 1061-1062. (Alice Guy Blaché)

Nichols, Bill, ed. Maya Deren and the American Avant-Garde. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.

“Nineteen Weeks for ‘Daddy Long Legs’ at Boston Theatre.” Motion Picture News (8 Nov. 1919): 3592. (Mary Pickford)

Niver, Kemp R. Mary Pickford, Comedienne. Los Angeles: Locare Research Group, 1969. 

——, and Bebe Bergsten. The First Twenty Years: A Segment of Film History. Los Angeles: Locare Research Group, 1968.

Norden, Martin F. Lois Weber: Interviews. Jackson, M.I.: University Press of Mississippi, 2019. 

——. “Women in the Early Film Industry.” Wide Angle vol. 6, no. 3 (1985): 58-76.

——. “Women in the Early Film Industry.” In The Studio System. Ed. Janet Staiger. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1995.

“Norma Entertains the Old Alumni.” Motion Picture Magazine (Sept. 1927): 86.

Normand, Mabel. “Myself–by the Seaside.” Pictures and the Picturegoer (8 Aug. 1914): 547-548.

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Norton, Helen. “Brains, Brown Eyes, and Buttons.” Motion Picture Magazine (March 1919): 30-31, 105. (Margery Wilson)

“Noted Dramatists to Write Moving Picture Plays.” Moving Picture World (28 Mar. 1908): 263.

Nowell-Smith, Geoffrey. “On History and the Cinema.” Screen vol. 31, no. 2 (Summer 1990): 160-171.

——. “On the Writing of the History of the Cinema: Some Problems.” Edinburgh ’77 Magazine 2 (1977): 8-12.

Nunn, Curtis. Marguerite Clark: America’s Darling of Broadway and the Silent Screen. Fort Worth:  Texas Christian University Press, 1981.

Oettinger, Malcolm. “Should a Wife Tell?” Picture Play (March 1924): 84, 104.

O’Leary, Liam. Rex Ingram: Master of the Silent Cinema. Dublin: Academy Press, 1980.

“Olga Printzlau Signed.” Moving Picture World (18 Dec. 1920): 855.

“Olga Printzlau to Write for Famous Players Corporation.” Moving Picture World (11 Sept. 1920): 183.

Olsen, Michael J. “The Five Faces of Angela Gibson.” North Dakota Horizons (Spring 1999): 24-30.

Olsson, Jan. Los Angeles Before Hollywood: Journalism and American Film Culture, 1905 to 1915. Stockholm: National Library of Sweden, 2008.

Olmsted, Stanley. “Paula Blackton and Her Art.” Motion Picture Classic vol. 4, no. 1 (March 1917): 54.

“On a Calcium Roll with Makebelievers.” Oakland Tribune (18 Jan. 1914): 6. (Vera McCord)

“$1,000 for an Idea! The Thomas H. Ince–Photoplay Magazine Scenario Contest.” Photoplay (Sept. 1916): 46.

“On the Photoplay Serial: An Interview with Eustace Hale Ball.” The Editor (7 April 1917): 294-296.

“Once Upon a Time.” Rev. Miami Metropolis (n.d.): n.p. Ruth Bryan Owen clippings files. HMSF.

“One of the Universal Faithful–Lule Warrenton, Character Leads.” Universal Weekly (7 Feb. 1914): 5.

“Onoto Watanna Stories Scheduled for Selig.” Motion Picture News vol. 11, no. 19 (15 May 1915): 34. (Winnifred Eaton)

“The Only One of Her Kind.” Picture Play (Aug. 1924): 65. (Milba K. Lloyd)

“The Only One of Her Kind.” Picture Play (Dec. 1924): 51. (Mollie Thompson)

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Osborne Eltonhead, Theodore. “The Why and Wherefore of Ouida Bergere.” New York Daily Mirror (5 Feb. 1916): 40.

“Ouida Bergere Joins American Play Company.” Moving Picture World (15 Apr. 1916): 417.

“Ouida Bergere Prepares Scenario.” Moving Picture World (16 Aug. 1919): 979.

“Ouida Bergere to Direct.” Moving Picture World (19 March 1921): 266.

“Our Growing Importance in the Amusement World.” The Competitor vol. 3, no. 4 (June 1921): 38. (Birdie Gilmore)

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“Outcast.” Variety. Rev. (8 Dec. 1922): 33. (Josephine Lovett)

“Owsley a Witness at Movie Inquiry.” New York Times (18 May 1923): 26. (Vera McCord)

“A Pair of Shoes.” Los Angeles Examiner (17 July 1916). (Lois Weber).

Palmer, Frederick. Photoplay Plot Encyclopedia: An Analysis of the Use in Photoplays of the Thirty-Six Dramatic Situations and Their Subdivisions. 2nd edition. Los Angeles: Palmer Photoplay Corp., 1922.

Paranyuk, Viktoria. “Riding Horses and Writing Scripts: Josephine Rector at Essanay.” Unpublished paper, Women and the Silent Screen Conference, June 2010.

Parchesky, Jennifer. “Lois Weber’s ‘The Blot’: Rewriting Melodrama, Reproducing the Middle Class.” Cinema Journal vol. 39, no. 1 (Fall 1999): 23-53.

——.  “Women in the Driver’s Seat: The Auto-Erotics of Early Women’s Films.” Film History vol. 18, no. 2 (2006): 174-184.

Park, Ida May. “Motion-Picture Work: The Motion-Picture Director.” Careers for Women. Ed. Catherine Filene. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1920: 335-337; Rpt. in Red Velvet Seat. Eds. Antonia Lant and Ingrid Periz. New York and London, Verso, 2006. 660-662.

Parsons, Louella O. “Essanay Days.” Theatre Arts (July 1951): 33.

——. The Gay Illiterate. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doran and Co., 1944.

——. How to Write for the ‘Movies.’ Chicago: McClurg, 1915.

——. “John. S. Robertson.” Interview. Morning Telegraph (5 Nov. 1922): 4. (Josephine Lovett)

——. “A Message to Scenario Writers.” The Art of Photoplay Writing. New York: Hannis Jordan, 1914: 116-119.

——. “Seen on the Screen.” Regular columns. Chicago Herald and Chicago Tribune 1915-1918.

——. Tell it to Louella. New York: Putnam, 1961.

——, with Monte M. Katterjohn. “Thumbnail Biographies.” Photoplay (Sept. 1914): 116.

Patterson, Frances Taylor.“The Author and Hollywood.” North American Review vol. 244, no. 1 (Sept. 1937): 77-89.

——. Cinema Craftsmanship; A Book for Photoplaywrights. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1921.

——, ed. Motion Picture Continuities. 1929. New York: Garland Pub., 1977.

——. “A New Art in an Old University.” Photoplay (Jan. 1920): 65, 124.

——.. “On the Lot with Lois Weber.” Photoplay (Oct. 1917): 89-91.

——. Scenario and Screen. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1928.

Peacocke, Captain Leslie T. “The Scenario Writer and the Director.” Photoplay (May 1917): 111-14.

“Pearl White.” Pictures and Picturegoer (9 Oct. 1920): 412, 421.

“Pearl White ‘Doubled’ Pathe Star Nearly Loses Her life in Strenuous ‘Iron Claw’ Stunt.” New York Dramatic Mirror (1 Apr. 1916): 32.

“Pearl White in Press Stunt.” Moving Picture World (6 May 1916): 948.

“Pearl White’s Message to our Boys.” New York Star (26 Dec. 1917): 78.

Peary, Gerald. “Czarina of the Silent Screen: Solax’s Alice Blaché.” Velvet Light Trap 6 (Fall 1972): 3-7 (Alice Guy Blaché)

——. “Alice Guy Blaché: Czarina of the Silent Screen.” IWomen and the Cinema: A Critical Anthology. Eds. Karyn Kay and Gerald Peary. New York: Dutton, 1977. 139-145.

——, and Karyn Kay. “Interview with Dorothy Arzner.” In The Work of Dorothy Arzner: Towards a Feminist Cinema. Ed. Claire Johnston.  London: British Film Institute, 1975. 19-29.

Peltret, Elizabeth. “Frances Marion—Soldieress of Fortune.” Photoplay (Nov. 1917): 31-33, 124.

——. “On the Lot with Lois Weber.” Photoplay (Oct. 1917): 89-91.

Pepper, Peter. “Lule Warrenton Becomes a Director.” Moving Picture Weekly (1 July 1916): 21, 31.

——. “The Strange Case of Mary MacLaren.” Moving Picture Weekly (21 June 1916): 9, 34. (Lois Weber)

Percey, H.G. “Problems of a Motion Picture Research Library.” Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers (March 1936): 253-258. (Elizabeth McGaffey)

“A Perpetual Leading Lady.” Sunset (March 1914): 636. (Lois Weber)

Peters, Lloyd. Lionhead Lodge. Fairfield, WA: Ye Galleon Press, 1967. (Nell Shipman)

Petersen, Christina. “’The Most Assassinated Woman in the World’: Pearl White and the First Avant-Garde.” Exporting Perilous Pauline: Pearl White and the Serial Film Craze. Ed. Marina Dahlquist. Bloomington: University of Illinois Press, 2013. 99-125. 

Petro, Patrice. Aftershocks of the New: Feminism and Film History. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2002.

——.  “Feminism and Film History.” Camera Obscura 22 (Jan. 1990): 8-27.

“Petrova-Prophetess.” Photoplay (Dec. 1917): 27.

Petrova, Olga. Butter with My Bread. Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1942.

——.  “Mme. Petrova Interviews Theda Bara.” Shadowland (Mar.-Apr. 1920): 43-44, 74.

Pickford, Mary. “Ambassadors.” The Saturday Evening Post. (23 Aug. 1930): 6-7, 117.

——.“The Feminine Mind in Picture Making.” Film Daily (7 June 1925): 9.

——.  “Greatest Business in the World.” Collier’s (10 June 1922): 7-8, 22-3.

——.  “Mary is Looking for Pictures.” Photoplay (June 1925): 39, 109.

——. “Moving Pictures.” Mary Pickford: Daily Talks. The McClure Newspaper Syndicate (7 Dec. 1915): n.p.

——. “My Own Story.” Ladies’ Home Journal (Sept. 1923): 9.

——. “Pickfordisms for Success.” Opportunities in the Motion Picture Industry. Vol. 2. Los Angeles: Photoplay Research Society, 1922. 93-98.

——. Sunshine and Shadow. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1955.

——. “Writing Scenarios.” Mary Pickford Daily Talks. The McClure Newspaper Syndicate (7 Dec. 1915): n.p.

Pierce, David. “The Legion of the Condemned: Why American Silent Films Perished.” Film History vol. 9, no. 1 (1997): 3-22.

Pieroth, Doris Henson. “The Only Show in Town:  Ellen Whitmore Mohrbacher’s Savoy Theatre.” The Chronicles of Oklahoma vol. 60, no. 3 (1982): 268-269.

Pitts, Michael R. Poverty Row Studios, 1929-1940: An Illustrated History of 55 Independent Film Companies, with a Filmography for Each. Jefferson, NC, McFarland & Co., 2005.

Pizzitola, Louis. Hearst Over Hollywood: Power, Passion, and Propaganda in the Movies. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002.

“Play to the Ladies.” The Nickelodeon vol. 1, no. 2 (Feb. 1909): 33-34.

“Plays and Players.” The Washington Post (22 June 1919): A4. (Adele Buffington)

“Plea for Better Movies.” New York Times (15 Dec. 1926): 30. (Vera McCord)

Polan, Dana. “History of the American Cinema.” Rev. Film Quarterly vol. 45, no. 3 (Spring 1992): 54-57.

“Popular Player Contest.” Motion Picture Magazine vol. 12, no. 11 (Dec. 1916): 15. (Pearl White)

“Popularity Contest Closes.” Motion Picture Magazine vol. XX, no.  11 (Dec. 1920): 94. (Pearl White)

Potamianos, George. Hollywood in the Hinterlands: Mass Culture in Rural America, 1896-1936. Unpub. PhD dissertation. University of Southern California, 1998.

Potamkin, Harry Alan. “The Woman as Film-Director.” American Cinematographer vol. 12, no. 9 (Jan 1932): 10, 45; Rpt. in The Compound Cinema: The Selected Writings of Harry Alan Potamkin. Eds. Harry Alan Potamkin and Lewis Jacobs. New York: Teacher’s College Press, Columbia University, 1977.

Pratt, George C. “‘If You Beat Me, I Wept’: Alice Terry Reminisces About Silent Films.” 1958; Rpt. in “Image” on the Art and Evolution of the Film: Photographs and Articles from the Magazine of the International Museum of Photography. Ed. Marshall Deutelbaum. New York: Dover Publications and International Museum of Photography, 1979. 181-86.

——. Spellbound in Darkness: A History of the Silent Film. Greenwich, CT: New York Graphic Society, 1973.

Pravadelli, Veronica. La grande Hollywood. Stili di vita e di regia nel cinema classico Americano. Venezia: Marsilio, 2007.

——. “Lois Weber’s Uneasy Progressive Politics: The Articulation of Class and Gender in Where Are My Children.” Unpublished paper, Women and the Silent Screen Conference, June 2010.

“Presenting Rex Ingram in ‘Baroud’ Directed by Alice Terry.” The New Movie Magazine (March 1932): 37-39, 107-108.

Prichard, Susan Perez. Film Costume, an Annotated Bibliography. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1981.

Printzlau, Olga. “Virtue vs. Vice.” Motion Picture Director (May 1925): 15.

“Producer and Leading Lady Married.” Moving Picture World (17 Jan. 1914): 291. (Stella Razzetto)

Pryor, Thomas M. “Dispute.” New York Times (18 Nov. 1951): X5. (Adele Buffington)

——. “Hollywood Tempest.” New York Times (11 Nov. 1951): X5. (Adele Buffington)

——. “Writers Guild Faces Problem.” New York Times (27 May 1952): 30. (Adele Buffington)

Quart, Barbara K. Women Directors: The Emergence of a New Cinema. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1989.

“The Question Mark.” Popular Scenario Writer (Oct. 1924): 14.

Quinn, Michael J. “Paramount and the Early Feature Distribution: 1914-1921.”Film History vol. 11, no. 1 (1999): 98-113.

Rabinovitz, Lauren. For the Love of Pleasure: Women, Movies, and Culture in Turn-of-the-Century Chicago. New Brunswick, NJ : Rutgers University Press, 1998.

Radinoff, Florence. The Photoplaywright’s Handy Text Book. New York: Manhattan Motion Picture Institute, 1913.

Radnor, Leona. The Photoplay Writer. New York: L. Radnor, 1913.

Ralston, Ray. “Ink in Their Veins.” Picture-Play Magazine (July 1917): 42. (Mary Murillo)

Rambova, Natacha. Rudy: an Intimate Portrait of Rudolph Valentino. London: Hutchinson & Co., 1926.

——, and Mrs. Richard Hudnut. Rudolph Valentino (Recollections) Intimate and Interesting Reminiscences of the Life of the Late World-Famous Star. New York: Jacobsen-Hodgkinson-Corporation, 1927.

Ramsaye, Terry. A Million and One Nights: A History of the Motion Picture. 1926. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986.

“Recovers from Sleep Sickness.” Moving Picture World (31 Jan. 1920): 716. (Hope Loring)

Redding, Judith M., and Victoria A. Brownworth. Film Fatales: Independent Women Directors. Seattle: Seal Press, 1997.

Reeve, W.E. “The Actress Flies High.” Moving Picture Stories (6 Aug 1920): 21.

Reid, Janet. “From Telephone Operator to Motion Picture Producer: With Apologies to Horatio Alger.” Motion Picture Magazine (May 1923): 66, 100. (Grace Haskins)

Remont, Fritzi. “The Lady Behind the Lens: Lois Weber, Photo-Genius, in Front of, or Back of, the Camera.” Motion Picture Magazine (May 1918): 59-61, 126.

“Renews Contract.” Moving Picture World (8 Dec. 1923): 570. (Olga Printzlau)

Richter, Hans. Hans Richter by Hans Richter. Ed. Clive Gray. London: Thames & Hudson Ltd., 1971.

Riddle, Melvin M. Pen to Silversheet. Los Angeles: Harvey White Pub. Co., 1922.

“Right.” Los Angeles Times (9 Nov. 1924): C32. (Dorothy Farnum).

Riley, Denise. “Does Sex Have a History? ‘Women’ and Feminism.” New Formations 1 (1987): 33-47.

Rinehart, Mary Roberts. “Face and Brains.” Photoplay (Feb. 1922): 47-48, 107; Rpt. in They Also Wrote for the Fan Magazines: Film Articles by Literary Giants from e.e. cummings to Eleanor Roosevelt, 1920-1939. Ed. Anthony Slide. London: McFarland, 1992. 121-128.

——. “How About the Movies.” Ladies’ Home Journal (June 1921): 21, 77, 79-80.

——. “My Experience in the Movies.” American Magazine (Oct. 1920): 18-20, 76, 78.

“Rites are Set For Author.” Obit. Los Angeles Herald-Examiner (8 Oct. 1970): n.p. (Marion Fairfax)

Robb, Jessie. “’That Something’: Metaphysics Predominant Theme of Production of Herman Film Corp.” The Moving Picture World vol. 49, no. 7 (16 April 1921): 758. (Margery Wilson)

Robbins, Phyllis. Maude Adams: An Intimate Portrait. New York: Putnam, 1956.

Roberts, Ozzie. “Memoirs of a Screenwriter.” The San Diego Union-Tribune (10 March 1998): E-1, E-4. (Frederica Sagor Maas)

Robinson, David. From Peep Show to Palace: The Birth of American Film. New York: Columbia University Press and the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., 1996.

“Rochester Has Real Woman Operator.” Moving Picture World (1 Feb. 1919): 618. (Lorena Stahley)

Rodowick, D.N. “Historical Knowing in Film.” Iris vol. 2, no. 2 (1984): 2-4.

Rosen, Marjorie. Popcorn Venus: Women, Movies & the American Dream. New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, 1973.

Rosenberg, Carolyn. “Only Woman to Manage Film Company.” American Hebrew (March 1916): 663. (Henrietta Cohn)

Ross, Steven Joseph. Working-Class Hollywood: Silent Film and the Shaping of Class in America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998. 

Routt, William D. “Lois Weber, or the Exigency of Writing.” Screening the Past 12 (2001): n.p.!padrenull&start_rank=28361

Rudman, Lisa. “Marriage—The Ideal and the Reel: or, the Cinematic Marriage Manual.” Film History vol. 1, no. 4 (1987): 327-340. (Lois Weber)

Rule, Frances. “How Alice Terry Lost Her Smile.” Picture Play (Nov. 1926): n.p.

Ruoff, Jeffrey, ed. Virtual Voyages: Cinema and Travel. Durham: Duke University Press, 2006. 

Russell, L. Case. “Here Lies,” Containing Fifty Themes That Are Now Forbidden, Fifty “Donts” “Manufactured Plots,” and a Sample Photoplay Complete. Brooklyn, NY: Photoplay Clearing House 1914.

——. The Photo-Playwrights Primer. Brooklyn, NY: The M.P. Pub. Co., 1915.

——. “You Mustn’t Ask to Vote.” New York Times (8 May 1912): 10. (Lillian Case Russell)

“Ruth Ann Baldwin Sails for Europe.” Moving Picture World (9 Jan. 1919): 197.

“Ruth Ann in New Sartorial Regalia.” Moving Picture Weekly (30 Sept. 1916): 42. (Ruth Ann Baldwin)

R.V.S. “Scenario Construction.” Moving Picture World (11 Feb. 1911): 294.

Sabine, Lillian. “The Women’s Page—Mrs. Stella F. Simon, New York City.” Abel’s Photographic Weekly 50 (Oct. 1932): 1293.

Sampson, Henry T. Blacks in Black and White: A Source Book on Black Films. 1977. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1995.

Sargent, Epes Winthrop. “Advertising for Exhibitors.” Moving Picture World (21 Oct. 1911): 194-195. (Florence Turner)

——. “The Literary Side of Pictures.” Moving Picture World (11 July 1914): 199-202. (Beta Breuil)

——.  “Lois Weber on Scripts.” Moving Picture World (19 Oct. 1912): 241.

——.  “Mrs. Breuil Lands.” Moving Picture World (3 Jan. 1914): 40.

Sandon, Emma. “Women, Empire, and British Cinema History.” Framework vol. 51, no. 2 (Fall 2010): 324-333.

Savage, Stephanie. “Evelyn Nesbit and the Film(ed) Histories of the Thaw White Scandal.” Film History vol. 8, no. 2 (1996): 159-175.

“Scenario Editor Changes Quarter.” The Film Daily vol. 34, no. 20 (25 October 1925): 2. (Winnifred Eaton)

“Scenarist Cites Most Essential Parts of Play.” Los Angeles Times (10 Apr. 1927): 22. (Dorothy Yost)

“Scenarist’s Latest ‘Bare Knees,’ Seen.” Los Angeles Times (28 Apr. 1928): 7. (Adele Buffington)

Schader, Fred.  Rev.  “The Offender” Variety (12 Nov. 1924): n.p. (Margery Wilson)

Schallert, Elza. “What Price Authors?” Los Angeles Times (19 July 1931): K7. (Jane Murfin, Gertrude Atherton, Zoe Akins, Elinor Glyn, Mary Roberts Rinehart, Kathleen Norris, Dorothy Parker, Edna Ferber)

Schatz, Thomas. The Genius of the System: Hollywood Filmmaking in the Studio Era. New York: Pantheon Books, 1988.

——, Charles Musser, David A. Cook, Tino Balio, Eileen Bowser, Richard Koszarski, Donald Crafton, and Charles Harpole, eds. History of the American Cinema. New York: Scribner, 1990.

Schmidt, Christel. “Preserving Pickford: The Mary Pickford Collection and the Library of Congress.” The Moving Image vol. 3, no. 1 (Spring 2003): 59-81.

——, ed. Mary Pickford: Queen of the Movies. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2013.

Schmidt, Jackson. “On the Road to MGM: A History of Metro Pictures Corporation, 1915-1920.” The Velvet Light Trap 19 (1982): 46-52.

Schumach, Murray. “Corinne Griffith Hails Her Town.” New York Times (6 July 1959): 22.

Schumacher, Dorin. “Helen Gardner-Silent Film Pioneer.”

——. “Restoring Helen Gardner’s A Sister to Carmen: A Granddaughter’s Journey.” In This Film is Dangerous: A Celebration of Nitrate Film. Ed. Roger Smither. London: FIAF, 2002. 375-376

——.  “A Sister to Carmen,” XVIII Pordenone Silent Film Festival Catalogue. Sacile, Italy: Giornate del Cinema Muto, Oct. 1999. 136-7. (Helen Gardner)

Scott, Evelyn Flebbe. Hollywood When Silents Were Golden. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1972. (Beulah Marie Dix)

Scott, Joan Wallach. Gender and the Politics of History. New York: Columbia University Press, 1988.

“The Screen’s Newest Woman Producer.” Photoplay (Oct. 1921): 24.

“Screen Writing Depicted by Bradley King.” Los Angeles Times (3 Aug. 1930): B16. (Bradley King)

“Securing Suitable Music for the Motion Picture.” Music Trade Review vol. 73, no. 9 (27 August  1921): 15. (Alice Smythe Jay)

Seeley, Evelyn. “Woman Tries to Debunk Stories of Mexico in Films: She Shot 150,000 Feet and Loves Every Inch of It.” New York World-Telegram (21 Dec. 1931): n.p. (Juliet Barrett Rublee)

Seldes, Gilbert. The Seven Lively Arts. New York, London: Harper & Brothers, 1924.

Service, Faith. “The Tortures of Cutting.” Motion Picture Classic (Nov. 1924): 20, 86-87. (Josephine Lovett)

Sessions, Ralph. The Movies in Rockland County: Adolf Zukor and the Silent Era. New City, NY: Historical Society of Rockland County, 1982.

Sewell, C.S. “Bryan’s Daughter to Produce Films.” Moving Picture World (13 Aug. 1921): 713. (Ruth Bryan Owen)

“She Has Written Four Hundred Scenarios.” Moving Picture Stories (25 Feb. 1916): 26. (Grace Cunard)

Shipman, Nell. Abandoned Trails. New York: Dial Press Inc., 1932.

——. Kurly Kew and the Tree-Princess A Story of the Forest-People, Told for Other People. New York: L. MacVeagh, 1930.

——.  “Me.” Photoplay 15 (3 Feb. 1919): 47-8.

——.  “The Movie That Couldn’t Be Screened (Parts 1-3).” Atlantic Monthly (Mar. 1925): 326-32; (Apr. 1925): 477-82; (May 1925): 645-51.

——. “This Little Bear Went Hollywood.” Good Housekeeping (Jan. 1931): 30-31.

——. The Silent Screen & My Talking Heart: An Autobiography. 1987. Idaho: Boise State University, 2001.

Shirley, Glenn. Hello Sucker! The Story of Texas Guinan. Austin, TX: Eakin Press, 1989.

Shreeve, Jenn. “The Shocking Frederica Sagor Maas.” Salon (13 Aug. 1999): n.p.

Shriver-Rice, Meryl. “Silent Leading Women: Female Agency and the Construction of Masculinity in Lois’s Weber’s The Blot.” Unpublished paper, Women and the Silent Screen Conference, June 2010.

Shumway, David R. Modern Love: Romance, Intimacy, and the Marriage Crisis. New York: New York University Press, 2003.

“Silence Being Golden, Two Scenarists Work Out Own Ideas Without Conference.” Los Angeles Times (22 Nov. 1925): C28. (Hope Loring)

Silverman, Sid. “Our Dancing Daughters.” Rev. Variety. (10 Oct. 1928): 22. (Josephine Lovett)

Simon, Joan. “The Great Adventure: Alice Guy Blaché: Cinema Pioneer.” Alice Guy Blaché, Cinema Pioneer. Ed. Joan Simon. New Haven and London: Yale University Press in association with Whitney Museum of American Art, 2009. 1-32.

Singer, Anita. “Gladys Hall, columnist, dies at 86.” Obit. The Long-Islander (22 Sept. 1977): 1-2.

Singer, Ben. “Female Power in the Serial-Queen Melodrama: The Etiology of an Anomaly.” Camera Obscura 22 (Jan. 1990): 91-129.

——. Melodrama and Modernity: Early Sensational Cinema and Its Contexts. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.

“Single Standard.” Rev. Variety (31 June 1929): 17. (Josephine Lovett)

Sitton, Robert. Lady in the Dark: Iris Barry and the  Art of Film. New York: Columbia University Press, 2014.

Sklar, Robert. Movie-Made America: A Social History of American Movies. 1975. New York: Vintage Books, 1994.

——. “Oh! Althusser!: Historiography and the Rise of Cinema Studies.” Resisting Images: Essays on Cinema and History. Eds. Charles Musser and Robert Sklar. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990. 12-35.

——, and Charles Musser, ed. Resisting Images: Essays on Cinema History. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990.

Slater, Thomas J. “June Mathis: A Woman Who Spoke through Silents.” Griffithiana vol. 18, no. 53 (March 1995): 132-169.

——.  “June Mathis’s Valentino Scripts: Images of the Male ‘Becoming’ after the Great War.” Cinema Journal vol. 50, no. 1 (Fall 2010): 99 -120.

——. “Transcending Boundaries: Lois Weber and the Discourse Over Women’s Roles in the Teens and Twenties.” Quarterly Review of Film and Video vol. 18, no. 3 (2001): 257-271.

Slide, Anthony. 100 Rare Books from the Margaret Herrick Library of the Academy Foundation: An Annotated Bibliography. Beverly Hills, CA: Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, 1987.

——. The Big V: A History of the Vitagraph Company. 1976. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1987.

——.  Early Women Directors. New York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 1977.

——. “Early Women Filmmakers: The Real Numbers.” Film History vol. 24, no. 3 (2012): 114-121

——. Eccentrics of Comedy. Lanham, MA: Scarecrow Press, 1998.

——. “Forgotten Women Directors.” Films in Review vol. 25, no. 3  (March 1974): 165-68, 92.

——. The Griffith Actresses. New York: A. S. Barnes, 1973.

——. “Hedda Hopper’s Hollywood.” Los Angeles Reader (4 April 1986): I, 8-9, 12.

——. The Idols of Silence. South Brunswick: A.S. Barnes, 1976.

——. Inside the Hollywood Fan Magazine: A History of Star Makers, Fabricators, and Gossip Mongers. Jackson, MS: University of Mississippi Press, 2010.

——. “An Interview with Margery Wilson.” The Silent Picture (Spring 1973): 17-24.

——.   Lois Weber: The Director Who Lost Her Way in History. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996a.

—— , ed. The Memoirs of Alice Guy Blaché. Trans. Roberta and Simone Blaché. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1986.

——. Nitrate Won’t Wait: A History of Film Preservation in the United States. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., 1992.

——. Selected Film Criticism, 1896-1911. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1982.

——. The Silent Feminists: America’s First Women Directors. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 1996b.

——. Silent Players: A Biographical and Autobiographical Study of 100 Silent Film Actors and Actresses.  Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 2002.

——. “The Talkies’ First Women Directors.” Films in Review vol. XXVII, no. 4 (April 1976): 226-229. (Wanda Tuchock)

——, ed. They Also Wrote for the Fan Magazines: Film Articles by Literary Giants from e.e. cummings to Eleanor Roosevelt, 1920-1939. London: McFarland, 1992.

Sloan, Kay. “The Hand That Rocks the Cradle: An Introduction.” Film History vol. 1, no. 4 (1987): 341-342. (Lois Weber)

——. The Loud Silents: Origins of the Social Problem Film. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988.

“The Smalleys Have a Message to the World.” Universal Weekly (Aprila 1915): 14.

Smith, Albert and Koury Phil A. Two Reels and a Crank. 1952. New York: Garland Pub., 1985.

Smith, Bonnie G. The Gender of History: Men, Women and Historical Practice. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1998.

Smith, Frederick James. “Amateur Movies.” Photoplay (March 1928): 71, 126. (Dorothy Farnum)

——.  “The Birth of a Notion.” Photoplay (Feb. 1919): 56-57. (Dorothy Farnum, Agnes Christine Johnston, Ruth Cummings, Ann Price)

——.  “Seeking the Germ. An Interview with the Sidney Drews.” Photoplay (Sept. 1917): 27-30.

——.“Unwept, Unhonored and Unfilmed.” Photoplay (July 1924): 64-67, 101-103. (Florence Turner, Marion Leonard, Flora Finch, Gene Gauntier, Florence Lawrence, Mary Pickford, , Lillian Gish, Mae Murray, Cleo Madison, Mabel Normand, Helen Holmes)

Smith, Russell E. “The Authors of the Photoplay.” Book News Monthly (March 1915): 327. (Louella Parsons)

Smith, Sharon. Women Who Make Movies. New York: Hopkinson and Blake, 1975.

——. “Women Who Make Movies.” Women & Film vol. 1, no. 3-4 (1973): 77-91.

“Snapshots of Film Personalities.” Motion Pictures and the Family (15 April 1938): 3. (Elizabeth McGaffey)

Sobchack, Vivian. “What Is Film History? Or, the Riddle of the Sphinxes.” In Reinventing Film Studies. Eds. Christine Gledhill and Linda Williams. London: Arnold, 2000. 300-315.

“Some Men and Women Who Direct.” Moving Picture World (21 July 1917): 422.

“Some Palaces the Fans Built.” Photoplay (Aug. 1917): 75-80. (Marie Doro, Gladys Brockwell, Louise Glaum, Ruth Stonehouse, Mary Pickford, Bessie Barriscale, Tsuru Aoki, Kathlyn Williams)

“A Soul Enslaved.” Rev. Moving Picture World (15 Jan. 1916): n.p. (Cleo Madison, Lule Warrenton)

Spehr, Paul C.  American Film Personnel and Company Credits, 1908-1920: Filmographies Recorded by Authoritative Organizational and Personal Names from Lauritzen and Lundquist’s American Film-Index. NC: McFarland & Co. Inc., 1996.

——. The Movies Begin: Making Movies in New Jersey, 1887-1920. Newark: Newark Museum, 1977.

Spensley, Dorothy. “The First Screen Actress.” Photoplay (April 1927): 67, 100. (Cissy Fitzgerald).

Springen, Donald K. William Jennings Bryan: Orator of Small-Town America. New York: Greenwood Press, 1991. (Ruth Bryan Owen)

St. Johns, Adela Rogers “The Fan-Letter Bride.” Photoplay (August 1922): 71+

——. “Get Me Dorothy Arzner!” Silver Screen (Dec. 1933): 22-24, 73.

——. “Guinan of the Guns.” Photoplay (Aug. 1919): 60.

——. The Honeycomb. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1969.

——. How to Write a Story and Sell It. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1956.

——. “The Last Straw.” Photoplay (May 1922): 27+

——. Love, Laughter and Tears: My Hollywood Story. Garden City: Doubleday, 1976.

——. “The One Genius in Pictures: Frances Marion, She is the One of Hollywood’s Six Greatest Women.” Silver Screen (Jan. 1934): 22-23, 53-54.

——. “Our One and Only Great Actress.” Photoplay (Feb. 1926): 58. (Norma Talmadge)

——. “The Private Life of Marie Dressler.” Liberty (13 May 1933): 20-25; (20 May 1933): 10-15; (27 May 1933): 32-37; (3 June 1933): 32-38.

——.  Some Are Born Great. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1974.

——.“Why do Great Lovers Fail as Husbands?” Photoplay (July 1927): 28-30, 116-117.

St. Johns, Ivan. “Fifty-Fifty.” Photoplay (Oct. 1926): 46, 123.

Staiger, Janet. Bad Women: Regulating Sexuality in Early American Cinema. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1995.

——.  “Blueprints for Feature Films: Hollywood’s Continuity Scripts.” The American Film Industry. 1976. Ed. Tino Balio. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985. 173-193.

——. “Combination and Litigation: Structures of U.S. Film Distribution, 1896-1917.” Cinema Journal 23: 2 (Winter 1984): 41-72.

——.  “Dividing Labor for Production Control: Thomas Ince and the Rise of the Studio System.” Cinema Journal vol. 18, no. 2 (Spring 1979): 16-25.

——.  “Mass-Produced Photoplays: Economic and Signifying Practices in the First Years of Hollywood.” Wide Angle vol. 4, no. 3 (1980): 12-27.

——. “Seeing Stars.” Stardom: Industry of Desire. Ed. Christine Gledhill. London: Routledge, 1991. 3-16.

——, ed. The Studio System. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1995.

——. “‘Tame’ Authors and the Corporate Laboratory: Stories, Writers, and Scenarios in Hollywood,” Quarterly Review of Film Studies vol. 8, no. 4 (1983): 34-45.

Stamp, Shelley.  “‘Exit Flapper, Enter Woman,” or Lois Weber in Jazz Age Hollywood.” Framework vol. 51, no. 2 (Fall 2010): 358-387.

——.“Lois Weber and the Celebrity of Matronly Respectability.” In Looking Past the Screen: Case Studies in American Film History and Method. Eds. Jon Lewis and Eric Loren Smoodin. Durham: Duke University Press, 2007. 89-116.

——.Lois Weber in Early Hollywood. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2015.

——. “Lois Weber, Progressive Cinema, and the Fate of ‘The Work-A-Day Girl’ in Shoes.” Camera Obscura vol. 19, no. 56 (2004): 140-169.

——. Movie-Struck Girls: Women and Motion Picture Culture after the Nickelodeon. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000.

——. “Presenting the Smalleys, ‘Collaborators in Authorship and Direction’.” Film History vol. 18, no. 2 (2006): 119 – 128.

——. “Taking Precautions, or Regulating Early Birth-Control Films.” A Feminist Reader in Early Cinema. Eds. Jennifer Bean and Diane Negra. Durham: Duke University Press, 2002. 270-278.

——. “Exit Flapper, or Lois Weber’s Critique of Jazz Age Hollywood”. Unpublished paper, Women and the Silent Screen Conference, June 2010.

Starr, Cecile. “Invisible Women.” Sight & Sound vol. 49, no. 4 (Autumn 1980): 245-247.

Steiger, Brad, and Chaw Mank. Valentino. New York: MacFadden-Bartell, 1966.

“Stella Razeto [sic].” Moving Picture World (14 Feb. 1914): 818.

Sterne, Elaine. “Writing Movies as a Profession.” Photoplay (Oct. 1914): 156, 158.

Stewart, Anita. The Devil’s Toy. New York: E.P. Dutton & Company, Inc., 1935

——.“My Life Story.” Motion Picture Magazine (June 1925): 40-42, 120-121.

Straayer, Chris. Deviant Eyes, Deviant Bodies: Sexual Re-Orientations in Film and Video. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996.

Strobel, Bill. “Niles Days as Film Capital Recalled by Oakland Woman.” Oakland Tribune (21 May 1958): 8-S. (Josephine Rector)

“Stokes Makes Seizure: Deputy Sheriff Levies on Possessions of Woman Scenario Writer.” New York Times (18 March 1923): S8. (Mary Murillo)

“Strongheart Gets Last Cue.” Los Angeles Times (Jun 25, 1929): A3. (Jane Murfin)

“A Studio Diplomat.” Picture Play (Dec. 1924): 54-55. (May Duncan)

Studlar, Gaylyn. This Mad Masquerade: Stardom and Masculinity in the Jazz Age. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. 

——. “The Perils of Pleasure? Fan Magazine Discourse as Women’s Commodified Culture in the 1920s.” Wide Angle vol. 13, no. 1 (Jan. 1991): 6-33; Rpt. in Silent Film. Ed. Richard Abel. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1996. 263-297.

Sturtevant, Victoria. A Great Big Girl Like Me: The Films of Marie Dressler. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2009.

“Success Shows ‘Happy Ending’ Not Essential.” Los Angeles Times (21 Mar. 1926): 29. (Dorothy Farnum).

“Such a Little Director.” Moving Picture Weekly (24 Mar. 1917): 19. (Ruth Stonehouse)

Swanson, Gloria. Swanson on Swanson. New York: Random House, 1980.

——. “There is No Formula for Success.” Photoplay (April 1926): 32-33, 117-119.

——.  “A Week with the Star: Wednesday.” Photoplay (Nov. 1921): 48-49.

——.  “What is Love?” Photoplay (Nov. 1924): 28-30, 123.

Synon, Katherine. “All Ready! Now the Villain Enters! Camera!” Photoplay (Nov. 1915): 91.

——. “Francelita Billington: Who Can Play Both Ends of a Camera against the Middle.” Photoplay (Dec. 1914): 58-60.

——. “This Is the New Fall Style in Camera ‘Men.’” Photoplay (Oct. 1916): 103. (Margery Ordway)

“Talking to a Director.” Motion Picture Stories (23 June 1916): 27. (Grace Cunard)

Talmadge, Constance. Fashion and Fillers for Feminine Fans. First National Pictures newssheet, n.d.

Talmadge, Margaret L. The Talmadge Sisters, Norma, Constance, Natalie; An Intimate Story of the World’s Most Famous Screen Family. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1924.

Talmadge, Norma. “Close Ups: An Autobiography.” Saturday Evening Post (12 Mar. 1927): 6-7; (26 Mar. 1927): 26-7; (9 Apr. 1927): 30-33; (7 May 1927): 34-5; (May 1927): 41-3; (25 June 1927): 43-6.

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“The Ten Best Amateur Films of 1930.” Movie Makers (December 1930): 758, 788. (Marvin Breckinridge)

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Thayer, Mamie. “Alice of Old Vincennes.” Picture Play (May 1921): 45-46, 95. (Alice Terry)

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“Theresa Nibler, Graduate from Box Office, Became Manager of the Electric.” Exhibitor’s Trade Review (17 May 1919): 1838.

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“‘The Thunderbolt’ Hits Hard, First Reports Would Point to a Successful Career for the First National Feature.” Motion Picture News (8 Nov. 1919): 3451. (Katherine MacDonald)

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——.  “Movie Moths.” Woman’s Home Companion (Dec. 1920): 14, 130-131. (Gertrude Atherton, Mary Roberts Rinehart, Edna Ferber, Fannie Hurst, Lois Weber)

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——. “Elizabeth Pickett.” Moving Picture World (17 Dec 1927): 29.

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Weitzel, Edward. “Clara Beranger Explains How to Combine Duties of Wife, Mother and Scenario Expert.” Moving Picture World (12 June 1920): 1445.

——. “Jeanie Macpherson Has a Great Ambition: Hopes to Fly across the Ocean Some Day.” Moving Picture World (2 April 1921): 500.

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White, Pearl. “Always Just Escaping Death.” Pictures and Picturegoer (21 July 1918): 111.

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——. “Putting It Over.” Motion Picture Magazine (Feb. 1917): 61-62.

——.  “Why I like to Work for Uncle Sam.” Pictures and Picturegoer (5 Oct. 1918): 343.

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“Who’s Who in the Film Game.” Motography (25 Dec. 1913): 485-486. (Agnes Egan Cobb)

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Williams, Whitney. “Loring-Lighton Scenario Team Combines Work With Romance.” Los Angeles Times (5 July 1925): 26. (Hope Loring)

——. “Penwomen Dominate Screen Literati Group.” Los Angeles Times (19 Nov. 1924): C10. (Agnes Christine Johnston, Dorothy Farnum, Clara Beranger, Frances Marion, June Mathis, Jeanie Macpherson, Olga Printzlau, Bess Meredyth)

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Willis, Richard. “Kathlyn the Intrepid.” Photoplay (April 1914): 46. (Kathlyn Williams)

Wilson, Margery. Dolores del Rio. Thumb Prints of the Famous. Los Angeles: Chimes Press, 1928.

——. Douglas Fairbanks. Thumb Prints of the Famous. Los Angeles: Chimes Press, 1928.

——. How to Make the Most of Wife. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Co., 1947.

——. I Found My Way: An Autobiography. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1956.

——. The Woman You Want to Be: Margery Wilson’s Complete Book of Charm. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1942. [Note: Originally published as Charm by Margery Wilson, 1928.].

Windeler, Robert. Sweetheart: The Story of Mary Pickford. New York: Preager Publishers, 1973.

“Winifred Dunn is Youngest Writer of Film Scripts.” New York Morning Telegraph (30 Dec, 1923): n.p.

Winship, Mary. “No, Bradley King Is Not ‘Mr.'” Photoplay (April 1924): 51.

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“Woman Director Efficiency Plus.” Los Angeles Times (29 Apr. 1923): III34. (Lillian Ducey)

“Woman Exhibitor Welcomes Ass’n.” New York Dramatic Mirror (15 Sept. 1917): 22.

“Woman Heads Company.” The New York Dramatic Mirror (17 Feb. 1915): 24. (Ouida Bergère)

“A Woman Invades the American Moving Picture Field.” Moving Picture World (13 Nov. 1909): 680.

“Woman’s New Sphere.” Scenario Bulletin -Digest (1923): 19.

“The Woman Picture Maker.” Metro Pictures Magazine (1915): 9.

“Women Assigned to Directorial Post.” Motion Picture Review (Dec. 1926): 41.

“Women Enter Comedy Field in Hollywood.” The Washington Post (18 Dec. 1937): 22. (Adele Buffington)

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“Women Start Something.” Moving Picture World (27 May 1916): 1515. (May Whitney Emerson)

“Women Will Get Due Credit Yet.” Los Angeles Times (12 Aug. 1923): III29. (Bradley King, June Mathis, Lois Weber, Hope Loring, Frances Marion, Marion Fairfax)

“Women’s Work in Motion Pictures.” Motion Picture Magazine (Aug. 1923): 90.

Woods, Frank E. “Functions of the Editorial Department.” Opportunities in the Motion Picture Industry. Vol. 2. Los Angeles: Photoplay Research Society, 1922. 19-23.

Woodside, J.B. “She Was Padded to Fame.” Photoplay (Dec. 1917): 127.

“Work on Elsie Ferguson Photoplays Establishes Ouida Bergere as One of Foremost Scenario Writers.” Moving Picture World (13 Sept. 1919): 1652.

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Wright, William Lord. “For Photoplay Authors, Real and Near.” New York Daily Mirror 71: 1851 (10 June 1914): 39. (Hettie Gray Baker, Marguerite Bertsch, Louella Parsons, Beta Breuil)

——. Photoplay Writing. New York City: Falk Publishing Company, 1922.

“Writer Believes Screen Must Be Independent.” Los Angeles Times (19 Oct. 1930): B23. (Bradley King)

“Writer Joins Ince Press Staff.” Moving Picture World (21 Feb. 1920): 1231. (Dorothy Faith Webster)

“Writing for a Dog Star.” New York Times (17 June 1923): X2. (Jane Murfin)

“Writing Scenario.” Moving Picture World (12 May 1923): 174. (Margaret Turnbull)

“Writing Screen Version.” Moving Picture World (16 Aug. 1924): 529. (Olga Printzlau)

 “Writer Enters Controversy Involving Moot Question of Ultimate Film Story Source.” Los Angeles Times (1926): C24.

“Writer Has Rapid Rise.” Motography (9 March 1918): 464. (Mary Murillo)

Wynne Herron, Stella. “Shoes.” Collier’s (1 Jan. 1916): 8-9. (Lois Weber)

Yezierska, Anzia. “A Hungry Heart and–$10, 000.” Literary Digest (24 Oct. 1925): 44, 46, 48; Rpt. in Antonia Lant and Ingrid Periz, eds. The Red Velvet Seat. New York and London: Verso, 2006. 643-648.

——. “This is What $10, 000 Did to Me.” Heart’s International–Cosmopolitan (Oct 1925): 40-41, 154. Rpt in. Antonia Lant and Ingrid Periz, eds. The Red Velvet Seat. New York and London: Verso, 2006. 643.

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——. “Plays and Players.” Photoplay (Jan. 1917): 82-86. (Helen Holmes, Ruth Stonehouse, Beatriz Michelena, Cleo Madison, Annette Kellermann, Olga Petrova, Anita Stewart, Florence Turner, Mae Murray.)

——. “Plays and Players.” Photoplay (March 1917): 84-87. (Olga Petrova, Mae Murray, Ethel Grandin, Flora Finch, Mary Pickford, Annette Kellermann, Marie Dressler, Lois Weber, Norma Talmadge, Lillian Gish)

——. “Plays and Players.” Photoplay (Oct. 1917): 52-53, 114. (Dorothy Davenport, Mary Pickford, Mae Murray, Ruth Stonehouse, Lillian Gish, Bessie Barriscale, Grace Cunard, Anita Loos, Mabel Normand, Texas Guinan, Clara Kimball Young, Norma Talmadge, Cleo Madison, Alla Nazimova)

——. “Plays and Players.” Photoplay (Nov. 1917): 80-82. (Clara Kimball Young, Fay Tincher, Lule Warrenton)

——. “Plays and Players.” Photoplay (Dec. 1917): 92-94, 110. (Mary Pickford, Mary MacLane, Anita Stewart.)

——. “Plays and Players.” Photoplay (Feb. 1918): 90-92, 118-120. (Mary Pickford, Frances Marion, Texas Guinan, Ruth Stonehouse, Pearl White, Mrs. Sidney Drew, Marguerite Clark, Norma Talmadge)

——.“Plays and Players.” Photoplay (Nov. 1918): 92.

Yost, Dorothy. Prodigal Lover. New York: Greystone Press, 1937.

“Your Fashion for Fall.” The Atlanta Constitution (10 Sept. 1911): C8. (Lady Duff-Gordon)

“Zoe Akins, Noted Writer, Dies at 74.” Obit. Los Angeles Examiner (30 Oct. 1958): n.p.

Zukor, Adolph with Dale Kramer. The Public Is Never Wrong; The Autobiography of Adolph Zukor. New York: Putnam, 1953.