British Commonwealth Nations


Allen, Julie K. “Divas Down Under: the Circulation of Asta Nielsen’s and Francesca Bertini’s Films in Australian Cinemas in the 1910s.” Studies in Australasian Cinema vol. 11, no. 2 (2017): 59-76.

Australia. Parliament 1926-1928. Report of the Royal Commission into the Moving Picture Industry in Australia 1927-1928. Parliamentary Papers Vol. IV. Canberra: Government Printer, 1928. (Beatrice Maude Tildesley)

Buckley, Anthony, and Dominic Case, Ray Edmonson, Andrew Pike. “The Restoration of the Sentimental Bloke.” [Booklet essay for DVD release Raymond Longford’s The Sentimental Bloke–The Restored Version]. National Film and Sound Archive Australia, 2009. 67-75. 

Carlsson, Susanne Chauvel. Charles and Elsa Chauvel: Movie Pioneers. Brisbane: University of Queensland Press, 1989.

Dooley, Marilyn. Photoplay Artiste: Miss Lottie Lyell, 1890-1925. Canberra, Australia: ScreenSound, 2000.

Maltby, Richard.  “The Cinema and the League of Nations.” In “Film Europe” and “Film America”: Cinema, Commerce and Cultural Exchange 1920-1929. Eds. Andrew Higson and Richard Maltby. Exeter: Exeter University Press, 1999. 82-116.

Matthews, Jill Julius. “Beatrice Maude Tildesley Goes to the Pictures.” Screening the Past (16 May 2004): n.p. 

——. Dance Hall and Picture Palace: Sydney’s Romance with Modernity. Sydney: Currency Press, 2005.

Nash, Margot. “Lottie Lyell: The Silent Work of an Early Australian Scenario Writer.” Screening the Past 40. Special Dossier: Women and Silent Screen (2015): n.p.

——. “The Silent Work of Australian Women Scenario Writers.” In Women Screenwriters: An International Guide. Eds. Jill Nelmes and Julie Selbo. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015. 169-179.

Palmer, Nettie. “Readers and Writers.” Argus (3 February 1917): 4.

Pike, Andrew, and Ross Cooper. Australian Film 1900–1977. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980.

Radi, Heather, ed. 200 Australian Women: A Redress Anthology. Broadway, NSW: Women’s Redress Press, 1988.

Royal Commission into the Moving Picture Industry in Australia, 1926-1928. Minutes of Evidence. Evidence of Miss Beatrice Maude Tildesley. 1926-1928. 916-920. NAA.

Rutledge, Martha. “Tildesley, Evelyn Mary and Beatrice Maude.” Australian Dictionary of Biography 12. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1990. 230-31. Also available ADB Online.

Seeking Data on Moving Pictures. Pan-Pacific Union Bulletin 112 (June 1929): n.p. (Beatrice Maude Tildesley)

Tildesley, Beatrice. “The Cinema in Australia.” The Australian Quarterly 8 (December 1930): 89-103.

——. “The Cinema and Broadcasting in Australia.” The Australian Quarterly 24 (December 1934): 129-36.

Toulmin, Vanessa. “Women Bioscope Proprietors–Before the First World War.” In Celebrating 1895: The Centenary of Cinema. Ed. John Fullerton. Sydney, Australia, John Libbey, 1998. 55-65.

Tulloch, John. Legends on the Screen: The Australian Narrative Cinema 1919–1929. Sydney: Currency, 1981.

Wolstencroft, Anne. “Enid Lorimer: Last Words: End of Career.” Filmnews Australia (November-December 1979): 11.

Wright, Andrée. Brilliant Careers: Women in Australian Cinema. Sydney: Pan Books, 1986. 


Armatage, Kay. The Girl from God’s Country: Nell Shipman and the Silent Cinema. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2003.

Beaulieu, Michel S. “The Best Picture Ever Made in Canada? Thunder Bay Films Limited and The Devil Bear.” Canadian Journal of Film Studies/Revue Canadienne D’Études Cinématographiques vol. 14, no. 2 (Fall 2005): 18-37.

——. Celluloid Dreams: An Illustrated History of Early Film at the Lakehead, 1900-1931. Thunder Bay: Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society, 2012.

——. “Early Filmmaking at the Lakehead, 1911-1931.” Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society Papers & Records XXXIII (2005): 42-64.

——. “‘We did it just for fun’: Amateur Filmmaking at the Lakehead, 1929-1930.” Ontario History vol. XCIX, no. 2 (Autumn 2007): 168-189.

Beaulieu, Michel S., and Ronald N. Harpelle, eds. The Lady Lumberjack: An Annotated Collection of Dorothea Mitchell’s Writings. Thunder Bay: Lakehead University Centre for Northern Studies, 2005.

Braun, Marta and Charlie Keil. Early Cinema Filmography of Ontario. [online database].

——.“No Centre, No Periphery?: Early Film Exhibition in Ontario, Canada.” In Domitor 2008: Les cinémas périphériques dans la période des premiers temps. Ed. François Amy de la Breteque. Perpignan: Presses Universitaires de Perpignan, 2010.

Canadian Moving Picture Digest (1 May 1940): n.p.

Cuppage, Edith M. “She Wasn’t a ‘Type,’ so She Became a Directress.” Maclean’s Magazine (1 May 1921): 64. (May Watkis)

“Cut Down Film Service.” Victoria Times (19 December 1921): 13. (May Watkis)

Denault, Jocelyne. Dans l’ombre des projecteurs: les Québécoises et le cinéma. Sainte-Foy: Presses de l’Université du Québec, 1996.

“Dorothea Mitchell.” In Inspiring Women: A Celebration of Herstory. Eds. Mona Holmund and Gail Younberg. Saskatoon: Saskatoon Women’s Calendar Collective, 2003. 179.

“Dorothea Mitchell.” In 100 More Canadian Heroines: Famous and Forgotten Faces. Ed. Merna Foster. Toronto: Dundurn, 2011. 246-249.

“Finishing Third Film.” Movie Makers Magazine vol. 4, no. 5 (May 1930): 285. (Dorothea Mitchell)

Gasher, Mike. Hollywood North: The Feature Film Industry in British Columbia. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2002.

Gaudreault, André, Germain Lacasse, and Jean-Pierre Sirois-Trahan. Au pays des ennemis du cinéma: pour une nouvelle histoire des débuts du cinéma au Québec. Quebec City: Nuit blanche, 1996.

Groupe de la Recherche sur la Avènement et la Formation des Institutions Cinématographique et Scénique (GRAFICS). Filmographie des “vues” tournées au Québec au temps du muet (1897-1930).

Hins, Sara-Juliette.“La réalisation de soi au féminin chez certaines héroïnes d’Emma Gendron, de 1920 à 1940: entre rupture et continuité.” Recherches féministes vol. 24, no. 2 (2011): 173-188.

Huge Crowd Gathers to See New Film.” Port Arthur News Chronicle (29 May 1929): n.p. (Dorothea Mitchell)

Lacasse, Germain. “Écrire entre les lignes: Emma Gendron et le nouveau cinéma québécois des années 1920.” Nouvelles Vues 12 (2011): n.p.

——. Histoires de scopes: le cinéma muet au Québec. Montreal: Cinémathèque québécoise, 1988.

——. L’Historiographe: les débuts du spectacle cinématographique au Québec. Montreal: Cinémathèque québécoise, 1985.

——.“Vestiges narratifs. Les premiers temps du scénario québécois.” Études littéraires vol. 26, no. 2 (Automne 1993): 57-65.

Lacasse, Germain, and Serge Duigou. Marie de Kerstrat: l’aristocrate du cinématographe. Quimper, France: Ressac, 1987.

Lady Lumberjack. [online resource]. (Dorothea Mitchell)

Lewis, Ray. “All About Myself [part 1].” Canadian Moving Picture Digest (13 August 1927): 4, 6.

——. “All About Myself [part 2].” Canadian Moving Picture Digest (20 August 1927): 4, 10-11.

Mitchell, Dorothea. “After Silver Mountain.” Undated and signed recollection. 2 pages. PC.

——. Lady Lumberjack. Vancouver: Mitchell Press Limited, 1967.

——. “A Race for Ties (Its Inception).” Unpublished notes, c. 1963. 5 pages. TBHMS.

——. Audio interview with the Canadian Film Institute. November 1963. TBHMS.

The Mitchell Story Continued.” n.d. n.p. Dorothea Mitchell File. TBHMS.

Moore, Paul S. Now Playing: Early Moviegoing and the Regulation of Fun. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2008.

——. “Summary of Women in Toronto’s Exhibition Industry, 1912-1924.” Unpublished. 

Moore, Paul S., and Louis Pelletier. “Une excentrique au coeur de l’industrie: Ray Lewis et le Canadian Moving Picture Digest.” Cinémas vol. 16, no. 1 (Fall 2005): 59-90.

Morris, Peter. Embattled Shadows: A History of Canadian Cinema, 1895-1939. Montreal: McGill/Queen’s University Press, 1978.

“A Race for Ties Feature in Gala Night to Remember.” Port Arthur News Chronicle (3 November 1970): n.p. (Dorothea Mitchell)

Savoie, Chantal.  “’Moins de Dentelles, plus de psychologie’ et une heure à soi: Les Lettres de Fadette et la chronique féminine au tournant du siècle.”  In Tendances actuelles en histoire littéraire canadienne. Ed. Denis Saint-Jacque. Québec: Nota Bene, 2003. 125-142.

Saxberg, Kelly. “Dorothea Mitchell.” In The Artist Herself: Self-Portraits by Canadian Historical Women Artists/L’artiste elle-même: autoportraits de femmes artistes au Canada. Eds. Alicia Boutilier and Tobi Bruce. Kingston and Hamilton: Agnes Etherington Art Centre and Art Gallery of Hamilton, 2015. 89-90; 151-152.

Shipman, Nell. Abandoned Trails. New York: Dial Press, 1932.

——. Kurly Kew and the Tree-Princess A Story of the Forest-People, Told for Other-People. New York: L. MacVeagh, 1930.

——. “The Movie That Couldn’t Be Screened.” The Atlantic Monthly (March 1925): 326 – 332; (April 1925): 477 – 482; (May 1925): 645 – 651.

 ——. The Silent Screen & My Talking Heart. Boise, ID: Hemingway Western Studies Series, 1987; repr. 3rd ed., 2001.


“Alma in Wonderland.” The Picturegoer (December 1925): 48. (Alma Reville)

Balcon, Michael. Letter to Elinor Glyn. January 5, 1925. MS 4059, Box 18. RUL-SC

Barnett, Vincent L, and Alexis Weedon. Elinor Glyn as Novelist, Moviemaker, Glamour Icon and Businesswoman. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2014.

Box, Muriel, ed. The Trial of Marie Stopes. London: Femina Books, 1967.

“The British Lion Film Corporation Limited.” [company prospectus]. The Times (29 November 1927): 23. (Mary Murillo)

Burford, Roger. “A New ‘Chair’ Which a Woman Might Fill.” The Gateway (July 1929): 100-103.

Burrows, Jon. Legitimate Cinema; Theatre Stars in Silent British Films, 1908-1918. Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 2003.

Burton, Alan and Laraine Porter, eds. Pimple, Pranks and Pratfalls: British Film Comedy Before 1930. Wiltshire: Flicks Books, 2000.

Chandler, Charlotte. It’s Only a Movie: Alfred Hitchcock–A Personal Biography. London: Pocket Books, 2005. (Alma Reville)

Chow, Karen. “Popular Sexual Knowledges and Women’s Agency in 1920s England: Marie Stopes’s Married Love and E.M. Hull’s The Sheik.” Feminist Review vol. 63, no. 1 (1999): 64-87.

Crespinel, William A. “Pioneer Days in Colour Motion Pictures with William T. Crespinel.” Film History vol. 12, no. 1 (2000): 57-71.

de Mille, Richard. My Secret Mother: Lorna Moon. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1998.

Etherington-Smith, Meredith, and Jeremy Pilcher. The ‘It’ Girls: Lucy, Lady Duff Gordon, the Couturière ‘Lucile’ and Elinor Glyn, Romantic Novelist. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1986.

“The Exhibitors’ Mecca.” The Bioscope (7 Sept. 1922): 36. (Encarnacion Rosa Scott)

Gifford, Denis. The British Film Catalogue: Fiction Film, 1895-1994. Vol.1. London: Routledge, 2001.

Giles, Judy. Women, Identity and Private Life in Britain 1900-1950. London: Basingstoke, Macmillan Press Ltd., 1995.

Gledhill, Christine. “Lydia Elizabeth Hayward (1979-1945).” In Women Screenwriters: An International Guide. Eds. Jill Nelmes and Jule Selbo. Houndsmill: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015. 606-615.

——. Reframing British Cinema 1918–1928: Between Restraint and Passion London: BFI, 2003.

——.“Reframing Women in 1920s British Cinema: the Case of Violet Hopson and Dinah Shurey.” Journal of British Cinema and Television vol. 4, no. 1 (2007): 1-17.

Glyn, Anthony. Elinor Glyn: A Biography. London: Hutchinson, 1955.

Glyn, Elinor. “Can women direct films?” Film Weekly (7 October 1929): 3.

Gray, Frank, ed. Hove Pioneers and the Arrival of Cinema. Brighton: University of Brighton, 1996.

Hall, Ruth. Marie Stopes: A Biography. London: Andre Deutsch, 1977.

Hayward, Lydia. “Concerning Scenarios.” The Bioscope (8 March 1928): 155.

——. “On Adaptation: Why A Story is Altered.” The Bioscope (18 June 1927): 155.

Hepworth, Cecil. Came The Dawn: Memories of a Film Pioneer. London: Phoenix House, 1951.

Higson, Andrew. Waving the Flag: Constructing a National Cinema in Britain. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997.

Hitchcock, Alfred. “The Woman Who Knows Too Much.” McCalls 83 (March 1956): 12, 14. Rpt. in Hitchcock on Hitchcock: Selected Writing and Interviews. Ed. Sidney Gottlieb. London: Faber and Faber, 1995. 51-53.

Hitchcock O’Connell, Patricia, and Laurent Bouzereau. Alma Hitchcock: The Woman Behind the Man. New York: Berkeley Books, 2003.

Horak, Laura. “’Would you like to sin with Elinor Glyn?’ Film as a Vehicle of Sensual Education.” Camera Obscura vol. 25, no. 2 (2010): 75-117.

“Inauguration of The Rose Film Company.” The Cinema (21 Sep. 1922): 38. (Encarnacion Rosa Scott)

Kuhn, Annette. “The ‘Married Love’Affair.” Screen vol. 27, no. 2 (1986): 5-21.

Lambert, Gavin. Mostly About Lindsay Anderson. London: Faber and Faber, 2000.

Lejeune, Anthony, ed. The C. A. Lejeune Film Reader. Manchester: Carcanet, 1991.

Low, Rachael. History of the British Film. Vol. I: 1896-1906. London: Allen & Unwin, 1949.

——. History of the British Film. Vol. II: 1906-14. London: Allen & Unwin, 1949.

Lorimer, Enid. “The Cinema and Education.” The Bioscope (1 Nov. 1917): 23.

——. “Film Criticism and the Lay Press.” The Bioscope (8 Feb. 1917): 537.

“Ludwig Blattner Film Corporation, Ltd.” [company prospectus] The Yorkshire Post (21 May 1928): 17. (Mary Murillo)

Lydia Hayward Signed Up.” The Bioscope  (12 May 1927): 33.

Lyons, Timothy James. The Silent Partner: The History of the American Film Manufacturing Company 1910 – 1921. The Arno Press Cinema Program. New York: Arno Press, 1974. (Encarnacion Rosa Scott)

Mannock, Patrick L. “Two New British Production Units.” Kinematograph Weekly (8 October 1925): 49.

“Married Love.” The Bioscope (17 May 1923): 61. (Marie Stopes)

McBride, Joseph. “Mr and Mrs Hitchcock.” Sight & Sound (Autumn 1976): 224-225.

McKernan, Luke.  “Interview with the Marchioness Townshend.” The Bioscope: Reporting on the World of Early and Silent Cinema. Bioscope WordPress Blog (9 June 2007): n.p.

——. “Jackeydawra Melford.” The Bioscope: Reporting on the World of Silent and Early Cinema. Bioscope WordPress Blog (18 May 2007): n.p.

——.“Searching for Mary Murillo.” In Doing Women’s Film History. Reframing Cinemas, Past and Future. Eds. Christine Gledhill, and Julia Knight. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2015. 78-94.

——.“’Something More than a Mere Picture Show’: Charles Urban and the Early Non-Fiction Film in Great Britain and America, 1897–1925.” Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of London, 2003.

“Meetings of Creditors.” The Kinematograph Year Book, Diary, and Directory (1932): 191. (Encarnacion Rosa Scott)

Moon, Lorna. The Collected Works of Lorna Moon. Ed. Glenda Norquay. Edinburgh: Black and White Publishing, 2002.

National Council of Public Morals, Commission of Inquiry on Cinema. The Cinema: Its Present Position and Future Possibilities. London: Williams and Norgate, 1917. (Marie Stopes)

“Opportunities for Women.” Kinematograph Weekly (17 June 1920): 135.  (Leila Lewis)

Perry, George. Forever Ealing: A Celebration of the Great British Film Studio. London: Pavilion Press, 1981.

“Presentation to Mrs. Scott.” The Cinema (21 Dec. 1922): 8. (Encarnacion Rosa Scott)

“Receiverships.”The Kinematograph Year Book, Diary, and Directory (1928): 196. (Encarnacion Rosa Scott)

Reville, Alma. “Cutting and Continuity.” The Motion Picture Studio (13 January 1923): 10.

Robertson, Patrick. The Guinness Book of Movie Facts and Feats. New York: Abeville Press, 1991. (Jackeydawra Melford).

“Rose Film Company’s Inaugural Dinner.” The Bioscope (21 Sept. 1922): 42. (Encarnacion Rosa Scott)

Rotha, Paul. Documentary Diary. London: Secker and Warburg, 1973. (Caroline Lejeune).

Sargeant, Amy. British Cinema: A Critical History. London: BFI, 2005.

Stannard, Eliot. “Writing Screen Plays.” In Cinema–in Ten Complete Lessons. London: Standard Art Book Company, 1920. (Blanche MacIntosh).

Stead, Lisa Rose. “Women’s Writing and British Female Film Culture in the Silent Era.” PhD Dissertation, University of Exeter, 2011.

Stopes, Marie. “The Unsuspected Future of the Cinema.” The New East vol. 3, no. 1 (1918): 26-28.

Terpstra, Mirte. Girls from the Sky: A Critical Catalogue of Women in the Production of British Silent Cinema, 1914-1918. Nottingham: University of Nottingham, 2006.

Urban, Charles. A Yank in Britain: The Lost Memoirs of Charles Urban, Film Pioneer. Ed. Luke McKernan. Hastings: Projection Box, 1999.

“Velle, Mary.” England & Wales, National Probate Calendar (Index of Wills and Administrations)1858-1966 [database on-line]. Provo, U.T.: www.Ancestry.comOperations Inc., 2010. n.p. (Mary Murillo)

Who’s What.”  The Kinematograph Year Book, Diary, and Directory (1923): 271. (Encarnacion Rosa Scott)

Who’s What in The Trade.”  The Kinematograph Year Book, Diary, and Directory (1929): 280. (Encarnacion Rosa Scott)

Williams, David R. “Ladies of the Lamp: The Employment of Women in the British Film Trade During World War I.” Film History  vol. 9, no. 1 (1997): 116-127.

Wolstencroft, Anne. “Enid Lorimer: Last Words: End of Career.” Filmnews Australia (November-December 1979): 11.