Unhistoricized Women Film Pioneers

There are currently 625 unhistoricized pioneers listed

The following list of unassigned pioneers is by no means exhaustive. We are always working to update our list of unassigned pioneers worldwide. Please note that in some cases, especially within the United States, we were still investigating whether or not some of the names that are listed were more than just actresses.

Page Key:

*all pioneers are published or currently in progress as of March 2019

**the list of pioneers is still being verified by the country contact.

p=producer / d=director / w=writer / e=editor / a=actress /o=other (i.e. assistant director/cinematographer/camerawoman/continuity/production designer/art director/production manager/exhibitor/studio manager/publicist/film critic/scholar/costume designer/janitor/laboratory worker/telephone operator, etc.).

Please contact the editorial team if you would like more information on an “o” occupation.

Argentina
René Oro/Renée Oro (d)
Elena Sansinena de Elizalde (w/d)

Australia*

Austria
Leontine Sagan (d/w)

Belgium
Anna Frijters
Aimee Navarra

Brazil*

Canada
Alice Fairweather
Yvonne Giguère (Mrs. Lucide Bertrand) (o)
Marguerite Marquis (w)
Lilian Whitney (o)

China
Wang Ying
Qian Siying
Tang Xingtu (p)
Li Dandan
Wang Caiyun
Yan Shanshan

Portrait of Li Dandan after she joining in Minxin film company, published on the magazine, Motion Picture, No.27, p27, 1933

Portrait of Li Dandan in Motion Picture 27 (1933): 27.

Croatia*

Czech Republic and Slovakia
Andula Sedlackova
Anny Ondrakova
Hermina Tyrlova (animator)
Irena Dodalova (o)
Suzanne Marwille (b. Marta  Schöllerova)
Zet Molas/Smolova (p/d/w/a)

Denmark
Emmy Drachmannand (w)
Helen Gammeltoft (w)
Rigmor Holger-Madsen
Karen Michaëlis (w)
Emma Pedersen (w)
Rita Sacchetto (a)
Ljut Steensgaard (w)

Egypt 
Aziza Amir
Behidja Hafez
Amina Mohamed
Fatma Roushdi

Dian Tong Pictorial reporting on Wang Ying (a/w), after her starring in Goddess of Freedom / Statue of Liberty, Vol.6, 1935. PCSL

 Wang Ying (a/w) on cover of Dian Tong Pictorial in 1935.

Finland
Eeva Leino (o)
Anna Kuosmanen (p)
Sofia Thomasson (o)

France
Jeanne Bruno-Ruby (d/w)
Suzanne Devoyod (d/w/a)
Marie-Louise Iribe (a/d/p)
Claude Revol (d)
…Full list coming soon!

Germany
Fern Andra
Ella Bergmann-Michel (d)
Jane Bess (w)
Fanny Carlsen
Grace Chiang (a/w)
Gertrud David (p/w/d)
Marie Luise Droop (p/w)
Luise del Zopp (w)
Edith Glück (costume designer)
Lydie (Liddy) Hegewald (p)
Hanna Henning (d)
Luise Heilborn-Korbitz (p/w)
Erna Morena
Hella Moja (p/w/a)
Lotte Neumann (w/a)
Ossi Oswalda
Henny Porten (d/a)
Olga Tschechowa (a/p?)
Irmgard von Cube (w/d/a)
Wanda Treumann
Rosa Wachtet (w/o)
Olga Wohlbruck (d/w)

Greece**

Ethel Doherty (w). AMPAS

Ethel Doherty (w). AMPAS

Hungary
Ilona Fülöp (w)

India
Fatma Begum (d/p)
Gohar Mamajiwala (a/p)

Italy
Maria Rosa Bermudez (w/a/poss. p & d)
Angelina Buracci
Diana D’Amore
Elettra Raggio

Japan
Yaoko Kinoshita (a/w)
Kasen Nakamura, (a)
Ayame Mizushima
Yoshiko Okada (a/p)
Utako Nakayama (a/w)

The Netherlands
Dolly Rudeman

Norway* 

Alice Eyton (w). AMPAS

Alice Eyton (w). AMPAS

Philippines*

Poland
Zofia Dromlewiczowa (w/d/o)
Jadwiga Golcz (o)
Stefania Heymanowa (o)
Wanda Kalinowska (o)
Maria Morozowicza-Szczepkowska (w)

Portugal*

Peru
Maria Wiesse

Russia/Former USSR
Notia Danilova (e)
Vera Eri (w)
Tat’iana Nikolaevna Lukashevich (d)
Tat’iana Tolstaja (w/d)
Ol’ga Vishnevskaia (w)
Taisiia Zlatogorova/Zlatagorra (w)

Serbia
Darinka Jovanovič-Ignjacevic

Slovenia**

Spain*
 

Film still of Wang Caiyun (a). Yan Ruisheng (1921). PC

Film still, Yan Ruisheng (1921), Wang Caiyun (a). PC

Sweden 
Hanna Bernburg (w)
Greta Berthels (a/w)
Sigrid Calamnius (w)
Märta Claeson (o)
Maja Engelbrektson (p)
Anna Myrberg (w)
Elsa Nelson (w/p)
Gabrielle Ringertz (w)
Ellen Sandels (w)
Svea Seving (o)
Johanne Skram Knudsen (w)
Alma Söderhjelm
Marika Stiernstedt (w)
Anna Johansson-Visborg
Agnete von Prangen (w)
Elin Wägner (w)

Tunisia*

Turkey*

United Kingdom
Muriel Alleyne
Mary Marsh Allen
Ethyle Batley (d)
Helen Bliz(z)ard
Marjorie Bowen
Millicent Bromhead
Ady Brunel (Adey?) (w)
Elsie Codd (o)
Elsie Cohen
Ivy Close
Ethel M. Dell
Jane Denison
Francis E. Grant (d/w)
Kate Gurney
Kathleen Hayden
Violet Hopson
Rita (aka Mrs Desmond  Humphreys) (w)
Peggy Hyland (a/d/p)
Nellie E. Locoque
Christabel Lowndes-Yates
Marcelle de St. Martin
Kathleen Mason
Peggy McCall
Edith Mellor (d/p/w)
Anne Bannister Merwin (w)
Irene Miller (a/w)
Edith Nepean
Violet E. Powell
Alicia Ramsay
Ella (Hetty) Langford Reed
Grace Rose
Alice Rosenthal (p)
Dorothy Smalley (o)
E. Alma Stout
Alma Taylor (a/w)
Lucy Heys Thompson
Marjorie V. Wilcox (w)
May Wynne (w)

Mildred Considine. AMPAS

Mildred Considine. AMPAS

United States
Eleanor Hallowell Abbott (w)
Violet Adams (w)
Vivian Whittall Adams (o)
Marian Ainslee (o)
Anne Story Allen (w)
Audrie Alspaugh
Adeline M. Alvord (a)
Louise Alvord (w)
Mary Jobe Akeley (o)
Doris Anderson (w)
Leonora Ainsworth (w)
Marguerita La Barnette Archambault (o)
Rosalie Ashton (w)
Suzanne Avery (w)
Bertha A. Backus (o)
Nelly Bly Baker (a/o)
Carmen Barnes
Amelia Barr
Dona Barrell (w)
Jean Bart (w)
Vicki Baum (w)
Cora Beach (a)
Pearl Doles Bell (w)
Dwinelle Benthall (w)
Elisabeth Bergner (a)
Isadore Bernstein (d/e/p/w)
Sylvia Bernstein Seid (w)
Ruth Biery (o)
Mrs. Frances Maule Bjorkman (w)
Ruth Black (o)
Nan Blair (w/o)
Elizabeth Baker Bohan (w)
Florence C. Boles
Bessie Boniel (w)
Beth Boone
Katharine Bowden (o)
Inez Bowser (o)
Mary Boyle (o)
Lillian Trimble Bradley (w)
Anna Fielder Brand (w)
F. Marion Brandon (w)
Marion J. Brandon
Lillian W. Brennan (o)
Constance Brinsley (w)
Elsie Bronson (w)
Mrs. Owen Bronson (w)
Marian Brooks
May Brotherton
Alice C. Brown (w)
Beth Brown (w/o)
Betty Huntington Brown
Dorothy H. Brown
Leona Bryse
Beatrice Buch (w)
Madeline Buckley
Natalie Bucknall
Betty Burbridge (w/a)
Mrs. Frances Hodgson Burnett (w)
Julia Burnham (w)
Viola Burhans
Katharine Newlin Burt (w)
Ruth Byers (a/w)
Regina Carewe (o)
Elizabeth Carpenter (w)
Catherine Carr (w)
Elaine Sterne Carrington (w)
Ray Carroll (p/w)
Ella Stuart Carson (w)
Aline Carter (o)
Louise Carter (a)
Vera Caspary (w)
Ethel P. Chaffin (o)
Anne Morrison Chapin (w)
Lillian Chapman (o)
Josephine Chippo (w/o)
Louise B. Clancy(w)
Violet Clark (w)
Bertha M. Clay (w)
Kate Claxton (w)
Emma Bell Clifton (w)
Agnes Egan Cobb (o)
Nan Cochran (w)
Jeanette A. Cohen (o)
Henrietta Cohn (w)
Maud Coleborn
Mrs. Tom Coleman (w)
Laura Colfax (w)
Nan Collins (o)
Betty Compson (w/a)
Harriet T. Comstock (w)
Mrs. H.C. Conley (o)
Mildred Considine (w/a)
Mrs. Jack Coogan a.k.a. Lillian Coogan (w)
Fanny Cook
Marjorie Benton Cook (w)
Caroline Frances Cooke (a/w)
Miriam Cooper (a)
Olive Cooper (a/d/w)
Alta M. Coultas (w)
Mildred Cox (o)
Eva Cram (o)
Mildred Cram (w)
Constance Crawley (a/d/w)
Victoria Cross (w)
Rachel Crothers (w)
Lottie Cruze (a)
Mitzie Cummings (a/w)
Ruth Cummings (o)
Cathrine Curtis (p)
Mary Cutler (o)
Camilla Dalberg (a)
Ida Damon
Grace Darling (a)
Donnah Darrell
Marion Davies (a/p/w)
Alta M. Davis (o)
Grace Davison (o)
Madame Fred DeGresac
Edith Barnard Delano (w)
Bertha E. DeLecuona (w)
Baroness DeMeyer/Olga Caracciolo (o)
Lucille De Nevers (w)
Mrs. Mary Ware Dennett (a/w)
Frances Denton (o)
Mrs. Hugh C. Dierker (w)
Josephine Dillon (o)
Marion Dix (w)
Ethel Doherty (w)
Annie Hamilton Donnell
Mme. Doraldina (a/w)
Kathryn Dougherty (o)
Georgette Duchesne (w)
Helen Duey (w)
Nellie Brown Duff (w)
May Duncan
Dorothy Dunn (o)
Jean DuPont (w)
Alexia Durant (o)
Catherine Van Dyke (w)
Lynda Earle (w)
Helen Jerome Eddy (a/p)
Katharine Eggleston
Edith Ellis (w)
Grace Elliot (a/w)
May Whitney Emerson
F.T. Emery
Marie Eve (w)
Alice Eyton (w)
Mrs. Milton H. Fahrney
Jo Farnum
Geraldine Farrar (a)
Mrs. Frank Farrington (w)
Virginia Faulkner (w)
Adrienne Fazan (e)
Maude Fealy (a/o)
Edna Ferber (w)
Janet Flanner (o)
Adele Whitely Fletcher (o)
Anne Crawford Flexner (w)
Annie Flohm (w)
Eleanor Flori (w)
Julia Folsva
Elsie Van Name (Ford) (w)
Victoria Forde (a)
Mary Fuller (a)
Caroline Francke (w)
Elizabeth Fraser (a)
Eleanor L. Fried (e/w)
Maude Fulton (a/w)
Edith Ellis Furness (w)
Pearl Gaddis (o)
Elizabeth Gaskins (w)
Eleanor Gates (w/p)
Myrtle Gebhart (o)
Madame Marie Genores (w)
M.E. Gibson (o)
Jeanette L. Gilder
Anna H. Gill
Birdie Gilmore
Louise Glaum (a)
Maude Grange (w)
Nellie Grant (o)
Anna Katherine Green (w)
Lillian Greenberger (o)
Mrs. A. Greene (o)
Mrs. E.L. Greer
Helen Gregg (w)
Beverly Griffith (a)
Eleanor Griffith (a)
Linda A. Griffith (a/w)
Olive Fuller Golden (a)
Doris T.Goodfellow
Kitty Gordon (a)
Ella Hall (a/p)
Clair H. Hamack (o)
Gertrude Brooke Hamilton
Helen Hamilton (w)
Hope Hampton (a)
Elizabeth G. Harrel
Kathryn Harris (w)
Theodosia Harris (w)
Mrs. Burton Harrison (w)
Mrs. Carter H. Harrison
Betty Harte (a/w)
Grace Haskins (w)
Fanny Hattin
Maive B. Havey
Ormi Hawley (o)
Wanda Hawley (a)
Lillie Hayward (w)
Adelaide Heilbron (w) 
Florence Hein (w)
Juile Herne (w)
Nan Heron (e)
Dorothy Herzog (w)
Eleanore Hicks (w)
Betty Hill (a)
Ethel Hill (w)
Mrs. Hoppe (o)
Edna Wallace Hopper (a)
Lillian Howarth (w)
Dorothy Howell (p/w)
Maude T. Howell (d/w)
Virginia Tyler Hudson
Mrs. Rupert Hughes (w)
Gladys Hulette (a)
Mary Hunt (w)
Gladys Hurlburt
Fannie Hurst (w)
Frances Hyland (a/w)
Alice Inwood (a/w)
Jenni Jacobs
Rosalie S. Jacoby
Marion Jackson (w)
Francis James (w/o)
Elsie Janis (w)
Emilie Johnson (w)
Isabelle Johnston (w)
Mary Johnston (o)
Helen Jonas (a)
Gail Kane (a/p)
R. Carol Kapleau (p/w)
Katherine Kavanaugh (w)
Virginia Kellog (w)
Kitty Kelly (a)
Elizabeth Kendrick
Clara Genevieve Kennedy (w)
Edith Kennedy (w)
Ethel Kennedy (w)
Madge Kennedy (a/p)
Barbara Kent (a/w)
Doris Kenyon (a/w)
Evelyn Kenyon (w)
Sophie Kerr (w)
Grace Kingsley (o)
Eleanor Kinkhead (w)
Virginia Kirtley (a/w)
Mabel Knettles/Nettles (e/o)
Vianna Knowlton (w)
Clare Kummer (w)
Mrs. James Lees Laidlaw
Barbara LaMarr (a/w)
Genevieve Lamson
Thelma Lanier (w)
Lita Lawrence (w/d)
Erna Lazarus (p/w)
Agnes Brand Leahy (w)
Florence Lee (a/w)
Nellie Lee
Olive H. Lee
Gladys Lehman (w)
Lela Leibrand (w)
Hope Leighton
Lyllian Brown Leighton (a)
Adeline Leitzbach/Leitz (w)
Jane Lennox (w)
Helen Lewis (e)
Louise Lewis (a/w)
Sadie Lindblom
Belulah Livingston
Francis Livingston
Milba K. Lloyd (o)
Helen Logan (w)
Elizabeth Lonergan (w)
Louise Long (w)
Ruth Harriet Louise (o)
Bessie Love (a/w?)
Louise Lowell (o)
Grace Lynch
Francis Lynde (w)
Grace Lytton (o)
Hazel Christie MacDonald (w)
Margaret I. MacDonald (o)
Mary Lanier MacGruder
Grace Mack (o)
Elizabeth Mahoney (w)
Edna Maison (a)
Anna Maloney
Doris Malloy (w)
Annie Marchant (o)
Arshaluys (Aurora) Mardiganian (a/w)
Ethel Marion
Mildred Mason (w)
Madeline Matzen (w)
Anne Maxwell (w)
Theresa “Miss Mack” McCaffrey (o)
Mary C. McCall Jr. (w)
Gertrude McCoy (a)
Margaret McWade (o)
Mary Rider Mechtold/Mary Mechtold Rider (w)
Elizabeth Meehan (w)
Miriam Meredith (d)
Alice D.G. Miller (w)
Elizabeth Miller (a)
Rose Mints
Ruth Comfort Mitchell (w)
Bertha Moore (o)
Helena Moore (w)
Lola Moore (w)
Harriet Morris (w)
Ruth E. Morris (w)
Florabel Muir (w)
Rosalie Mulhall (w)
Pola Negri (a)
Faye Neill (w)
Kora Newell
Anne Nicholas
Frances Nordstrom (d/w)
Kathleen Norris (w)
Margaret Nott (o)
Jane Novak (a)
Myra Nye (o)
Alice M. O’Brien (a)
Peggy O’Day (a/e/w)
Mary O’Hara (w)
Agnes O’Malley (o)
Ruth M. Oliver
Gertrude Orr (w)
Marion Orth (w)
Florence M. Osborne (o)
Margaret Oswald (w)
Seena Owen (a/w)
Louise Panthier
Claire Parker
Dorothy Parker
Molly Parro (w)
Agnes Parsons (w)
Virginia Pearson (a/w/o)
Elizabeth Peltret (o)
Laura Perelman (w)
Mrs. H. Peterson (o)
Adele Pierce (a)
Katherine Anne Porter (o)
Beulah Poynter (a/w)
Ann Price (w)
Gertrude Price (o)
Peggy Prior (w)
Agnes Louise Provost (w)
Beatrice Prucha (w)
Gertrude Purcell (w)
Julia M. Purdy (w)
Nina Wilcox Putnam (w)
Harriet Quimby (and Charlotte Thompson)
Josephine Quirk (w)
Florence Radinoff (a)
Leona Radnor (w)
Marion Rae (e)
Stella Razzetto
Katherine Reed (w)
Fritzi Remont (o)
Isobel M. Reynolds (w)
Lynn F. Reynolds (d/p/w)
Nellie Revell (w)
Alice Hagan Rice
Anna Steese Richardson (w)
Mrs. May B. Richardson (o)
Edna G. Riley (w)
Mary Roberts Rinehart (o)
Kay Van Riper (w)
Hallie Erminie Rives (w)
Mrs. Winifred Von Rittsberg
Katherine Leiser Robbins (o)
Marguerite Roberts (w)
Elizabeth Robins (o)
Virginia E. Roe
Ruth Roland (a)
Patricia Rooney (e)
Inez Russel
Madeleine Ruthven (w)
Florence Ryerson (w)
Madeleine Lucette Ryley (w)
Amy N. Sacker (Amy E. Sacker?) (d/p)
Alice Von Samai
Margaret Sanger (o)
Lucy Saver (w)
Olga Linek Scholl (w)
Doris Schroeder (w)
Blanche Stuart Scott (a)
Zelda Sears (a/w)
Molly Elliot Seawall (w)
Lillian Nicholson Shearon (w)
Viola Brothers Shore (w)
Marie Shores
Esther Shulkin (w)
Joy Sill (e)
Tess Slesinger (w)
Agnes Smith (o)
Daisy Smith (w)
Bella Spewack (w)
Cecil Spooner (p)
Lucita Squier (w)
Lorena Stahley
Aubrey Stauffer (w)
Daisy R. Stone (a/w)
Lillian Spellman Stone
Edith Storey (a)
Marguerite C. Storrs (w)
Lillian J. Sweetser (w)
Florence Strauss
Margaret Strickland (w)
Eve Stuyvesant (w)
Adele V. Sullivan (o)
Irene Tams (a)
Eva Tanguay (a)
Rose Elizabeth Tapley (a)
Ida Tarbell
Belle Taylor (w)
Mary Imlay Taylor (w)
Sylvia Thalberg (w)
Irene Thirer (o)
Mollie Thompson (a)
Maravene Thompson (w)
Mae Tinee (aka Frances Peck Grover)
Ruth Todd (Tood?)(w)
Edyth Totten (a/w)
Madame E. Touissant Welcome (Jennie Louise Van Der Zee) (p)
Virginia Tracy (w)
May Tully (a/w)
Madge Tyrone (a/e/w)
Harriet Underhill (w)
Gladys Unger (w)
Louise Vale (a/w)
Lillian Valentine (w)
Beatrice Van (w)
Virginia Van Upp (p/w)
Edith Vernick (animator)
Florence Vidor (a)
Harriet Virginia (d/w/o)
Lula Vollmer (w)
Marie Van Vorst (w)
Sophie Wachner (o)
Gwen Wakeling (o)
Irene Wallace (a)
Luci Ward (w)
Mary Jane Warren (o)
Ruth Waterbury (o)
Maureen Watkins
Mrs. M. Webb (w)
Dorothy Faith Webster
Emmy Wehlen (a)
Rita Weiman (w)
Helen Weiner (o)
Alice C. Weitz
Carolyn Benbrooke Wells (w/o)
Claudine West (w)
Meta White (a/w)
Virginia Whitmore (w)
Ruth Wightman (w)
Ella Wheeler Wilcox (w)
Anna Tupper Wilkes (w)
Claire Wille
Alice Williams (w)
Dixie Wilson (w)
Mrs. Woodrow Wilson (w)
Marie A. Wing (w)
Louise Winters (w)
Rally Winters
Thyra Sampter Winslow (w)
Ella Woods (Nancy Ellen Anderson Woods?) (w/a)
Lotta Woods (w)
Frances M. Wright (a/o)
Alice M. Yolton (w)
Rella Young (w)
Lois Zellner (w)

 

Unhistoricized Occupations List

The following list of unhistoricized occupations is a list of some of the jobs we have come across in our archival research that have yet to be represented by the Women Film Pioneers Project. Is by no means exhaustive, but represents some of the lesser known and generally unacknowledged occupations held by women in the silent era. These occupations come from the Metro Pictures Corporation weekly payroll between 1921- 1922.

Beautician

Beauty Parlor Operator

Bookkeeper

Cashier

Circus Performer

Clerk

Draper

Dry Room Helper

Finisher

Fitter (Assistant Fitter)

Helper

Hypo Man

Interpreter

Janitress

Landlady

Machine Operators

Maid

Matron

Milliner

Negative Cutter (Head Negative Cutter)

Negative Wrapper

Payroll Clerk

Phone Operator

Portrait Photographer

Positive Cutter

Printer

Printing Room Forewoman

Real Estate Owner

Reception Room Clerk

Religious Educator

Retoucher

Script Clerk

Shopper

Splicer

Stock Clerk

Superintendent

Supervisor (Assistant Supervisor)

Teacher

Translator