1. Sources/Citation Style and the Bibliography

Sources & Citation Style

We urge primary research in national and local archives, minimizing reliance on secondary sources, especially for quotes. Reference works and often-cited basic historiographic sources are in the full bibliographies (U.S. and Latin America) in Resources or with each national or regional overview (Later Phases). Use quotes sparingly for period flavor. Translate quotes into English. (see Elvira Giallanella Submission Model).

For Overview Essays, we allow both the use of citations via footnotes or a standard bibliography and in-text citations. Examples of each format: “Women as Camera Operators or ‘Cranks’” and “Newspaperwomen and the Movies in the USA, 1914-1925.” 

Please note: our career profiles must follow standard bibliography/in-text citation format.

If using in-text citations, please follow our Rule of Thumb: Simplify by weaving dates and publication references (no obscure author names, no full article titles) into text with full bibliographic info in Bibliography and/or Resources.

Example 1: In 1913, the Moving Picture World, reviewing The Way of the World, called it “an emotional wild ride of a film” (801).

Example 2: Although Anthony Slide cannot confirm the success of the film, he retells the same story that Charles Higham does (Slide 1977, 60; Higham 1973, 38).

In-text citation uses author, year, page, referring to Bibliography and/or comprehensive Bibliographies in the Resources section. 

If using endnotes (for overview essays only), please follow MLA guidelines:

MLA discourages extensive use of explanatory or digressive notes. MLA style does, however, allow you to use endnotes for bibliographic notes and other brief explanatory notes/mentions of other sources for readers to consult. For examples, please refer to “Newspaperwomen and the Movies in the USA, 1914-1925.”  


List all works cited in the Profile and other  sources up to 10. Include in Other Sources basic reference works, non-fiction works, novels written by pioneer and other relevant but unusual citations. Note:  citations are not  part of  Profile entry word count & filmographies have no word or number limit.

For MLA (Modern Language Association) Style consult World Catalogue. See http://www.worldcat.org for  specialized bibliographic questions. Include citations in their original language (if work is not translated into English) in the Bibliography.

Guide for MLA Style Book Citation:


  1. enter title, subject, or person in the original language→click Search
  2. click the item you need to cite
  3. click Cite/Export
  4. copy the information below MLA into your work or  “Export to EndNote | Export to RefWorks” from the listed information (if the software has been installed in your computer).

Another helpful resource: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/


MLA Bibliographic Style Examples–Alphabetical Order by Title or Author Last Name:

“Blache (sic) Forms New Company. Will Be Known as United States Amusement Corporation and Will Make Big Features.” Moving Picture World (2 May 1914): 653.

“Bluebird’s New Director.” Universal Weekly  4.13 (12 May 1917): 27.

Carroll, Harrison. “Helen Holmes.” Los Angeles Herald (2 March 1936) n.p. Helen Holmes biography file, AMPAS.

“Celluloid Doctors on High Seas” Los Angeles Times (1 Apr. 1928): C15.

Craig, Johnstone. “Texas, the State of Excitement.” Photoplay (Aug. 1918): 77.

“A Forty-Five minute Talking Picture.” Rev. Moving Picture World (24 May 1913): 801.

Fullerton, John, ed. Celebrating 1895: The Centenary of Cinema. London: John Libbey, 1998.

Grossman, Andrew, “Fay Tincher.” http://sensesofcinema.com/2002/23/symposium3/#tincher

Holmes, Helen. “Action is the Spice of Life, Says Miss Holmes.” New York Telegraph (21 Nov. 1915). n.p. Helen Holmes clippings file, NYPL.

Park, Ida May. “The Motion-Picture Director.” In Catherine Filene, ed. Careers for Women.Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1920. 335 – 37.

“Unknown Title.”Morning Telegraph (8 Apr. 8 1923) n.p. Leah Baird clippings file. AMPAS.

Waldekranz, Rune. Filmen växer upp: femtio års utveckling. Stockholm: H. Gebers, 1941.

——. Levande fotografier: film och biograf i Sverige 1896-1906. Lic.-avh. Stockholm : Univ, 1969.

Wang, Hanlun. 感慨话当年/Gan kai hua dang nian. Beijing: Zhongguo dian ying chu ban she, 1984.

Webster, Dorothy Faith. “The Bear Facts About Gale Henry.” Photoplay (Jan. 1920): 26-27.

Rev. = film review

n.p. = no page (found in clippings file or biography file) + Print Manuscript Library Abbrev.

Obit. = obituary

Archival Paper Collections

List full official addresses and websites as well as groups of files within collections if information is available. 

For example: Olga Petrova Collection, Folders 10-12, American Heritage Archive, University of Wyoming, Dept. 3924 1000 E. University Avenue, Laramie, WY  82071. http://ahc.uwyo.edu/.

See the Archival Paper Collections Site Key in the Resources section for correct abbreviations to include in your Bibliography.