2. The Filmography and Credits

Both existing (Extant) and titles believed to be lost (Not Extant), by chronological year, listed separately as A. and B.

A. Archival Filmography: Extant Film Titles

  • Use Fédération Internationale des Archives du Film (FIAF) abbreviation (see Archival Film Print Collections Site Key).
  • List all archives.
  • Follow the FIAF credit standards (see below).
  • Abbreviate cast list, include only other pioneers and significant actors (see below)
  • List reels and feet for one archive only, preferably the one holding  the most complete material, and the others following.
  • Convert meters to feet: http://www.asknumbers.com/LengthConversion.aspx
  • Note:  Intertitles on an extant (existing) print at a national archive may not be in the original language. Give language of intertitles if  not in the original language on the most complete print.
  • List only the release date year.
  • Divide roles into “As Director,” “As Producer,” “As Screenwriter,” “As Actress,”  “As Director-Screenwriter,”   numbered 1, 2, 3, and so on.
  • Only include silent era credits even if pioneer continued to work into and during the sound era.

Sources for Credits: Start with IMDb, but confirm all titles with AFI (American Film Institute) and FIAF databases: FIAF International Index to Film Periodicals & Treasures From Film Archives (accessed through ProQuest). Please note that while FIAF resources contain credits & silent-era film (extant copy) holdings of world film archives, AFI may have more complete cast. More information on the FIAF databases can be found here.

Credit Standards: FIAF (Fédération Internationale des Archives du Film):

The New York Hat. Dir.: D.W. Griffith, sc.: Anita Loos (Biograph Co. US 1912) cas.: Mary Pickford, Claire McDowell, Mae Marsh, Lionel Barrymore, Lillian Gish, Dorothy Gish, Jack Pickford, si, b&w, 16 & 35mm.  Archive: CAQ, BRR, SES, USR, ILA, USW, USM, USD, CAO, GBB, USL, USB, FRL.

FIAF Credit Abbreviations:

Dir.: director (Capitalize first letter in credits—usually the director)

sc.: screenwriter, scenario, or writer

adp.: adaptation

sc./adp.: screenwriter; adaptation

st.: story

cont.: continuity

aut.:  author, silent cinema usage is broad

dir./sc.: director/screenwriter, scenario, or writer

prod./dir.: producer and director

prod.: producer

exec. prod.: executive producer

co-prod/prod mgr: co-producer and production manager

ed.: editor

cam.: camera operator

ard.: art director

anm: animator

td.: title designer

ttl.: titles

cas.: cast member (List only woman film pioneers and any others of historic significance)

si: silent   (no period)

si/sd: silent and sound versions

b&w: black and white (no period)

Credit Discrepancies:  Bracket “Note” and your commentary in a paragraph after the credits:

Mabel’s Strange Predicament.  Dir: Henry Lehrman and Mack Sennett (Keystone US 1914)  cas.: Mabel Normand, Charlie Chapin, si, b&w, 16mm.  Archive: ITG, GBB, DKK, ESM, ARF [Note:  Directed by Normand, but also credited to Henry “Pathe” Lehrman and Mack Sennett]


Long note on credit discrepancies may be placed  after all credits in Credit Report (see below)  at end of Filmography (after sections C, D & E).

B. Filmography: Not Extant Titles

  • List only titles and year as in models.
  • If officially published credits do not mention the pioneer and you know that she is responsible for film, use wording such as “possible co-producer or scenarist.”
  • As in A, divide into “As Director,” “As Producer,” “As Screenwriter,” “As Actress,”  and “As Director-Screenwriter,”   numbered 1, 2, 3, and so on.

C. DVD/VHS Sources

  • List title, distribution company, country, and year. For example: Slapstick Encyclopedia.  DVD (Image Entertainment US 2002).

D. Streamed Media

  • YouTube clips and excerpts/other streamed media (trailers etc.), when available.

E. Unfinished Works

  • In some cases, an author may want to list unfinished film work by a pioneer following “D. Streamed Media” section. Please list film title and (archival) status/existing materials/available information.
  • Example: Ritter Mönch und Liebe: film manuscript, prospective producer Institut für Kulturforschung.

Credit Report

Space for commentary on silent era film credit discrepancies. Placed at end of Filmographies, author’s explanation of sources used for credits, speculation about discrepancies and commentary on published claims.


Credit Report: Numerous online sources claim Eve Unsell wrote scenarios for The Million (1914), Mrs. Black is Back (1914), The Morals of Marcus (1915), and Twice Born Woman (1921), however, her participation cannot be confirmed in either Spehr, 1996, or the AFI catalogs. The Parasite (1925), is listed in some sources as being directed by Louis Gasnier and other sources by B.P. Schulberg. It is most likely that Schulberg produced and Gasnier directed.

Credit Report: The Valda Valkyrien filmography is based on the standard sources as well as Wollstein’s Classic Images. It is believed that she appeared in additional films in Denmark, but her involvement has not been confirmed.

Credit Report: The Hettie Gray Baker filmography is incomplete as she was rarely credited onscreen for her work. This filmography is based largely on references to Baker’s work, made both by Baker and by others, as well as by combing through existing filmographies. The positions she often held—such as title editor and production editor—defy current classifications for writing and editing.